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Archives Blog

​Welcome to the Simcoe County Archives blog.

We'll be posting records from our collections that celebrate anniversaries and events as well as items that catch our interest. We hope they catch yours, too!

Blog posts appear in the list below. Happy reading!

 

 

Kate Aitkenhttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/Kate-Aitken.aspx3/6/2017 5:49:45 PMKate Aitken<p><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="font-family:arial;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">​​Blog originally posted ​March 6, 2017</span><br></span></span></p><p style="text-align:left;">Kate (Scott) Aitken also known as “Mrs. A” was a celebrated Canadian broadcaster, lecturer and author. Her career was so diverse, that it is a challenge to list all of her accomplishments.<br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_050_crop_1080jpg.jpg" title="Kate Aitken"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_050_crop_480jpg.jpg" alt="Kate Aitken" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /></a><br><span style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;">A promotional headshot of Kate Aitken, ca. 1940<br></span><span data-scheme-color="@44546A,3," data-usefontface="false" data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;">From the </span><span data-scheme-color="@44546A,3," data-usefontface="false" data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;">Simcoe Area Tweedsmuir History, Vol. 1, </span><span data-scheme-color="@44546A,3," data-usefontface="false" data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;">1925-1975, pg. 50 </span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;">Kate May Scott was born on April 6, 1891, to Anne and Robert Scott, in the small rural village of Beeton Ontario.</span></p><p><span style="font-family:arial;font-size:12pt;">​At the early age of twelve, Kate became a self-styled entrepreneur. During the summer holidays, she rented a bicycle and sold cosmetics by order form, to the ladies of Beeton and outlying farms. That same year she entered High School and used her earnings, $27.85, to pay for her books.</span>         </p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;">Kate’s writing career also had an early start. Robert Scott owned and operated one of three general stores in Beeton. His least favorite task was composing the store’s weekly ad for the local newspaper. Kate received high marks for composition in school, which landed her the “job”.</span></span></span></span><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;">                     </span></span></span></span></p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2016-17_1081_Centre%20Street,%20Beeton,%20Ontario,%20Canada.JPG" style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2016-17_480_Centre%20Street,%20Beeton,%20Ontario,%20Canada.JPG" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a>          <br>Postcard featuring a view of  Centre Street in Beeton, Ontario<br>                         ​​Copyright: Public Domain       ​                           <a href="/Archives/Pages/974-05_1081_AITKEN,%20K_Making%20your%20living_cover_front.JPG"></a></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial;font-size:12pt;">Later in life she went on to be the author six books.“Kate Aitken’s Canadian Cook Book” published in 1945 became a best seller. In “Never A Day So Bright” published 1956 and in “Making Your Living is Fun” published 1959, Kate writes about life growing up in Beeton and her subsequent careers. Both are a delightful read. They are available at the Archives reading room. She also wrote for newspapers and magazines.</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"></span><span style="font-family:arial;">Kate's teaching career started as a substitute teacher when she was 14. She became certified at 16 with only three months training. Receiving higher certification at 18 she then moved to Saskatchewan. "I learned that every Western teacher should come equipped not only with text-books but also with a saddle" (Aitken, 13).</span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Her stay out west was short lived. She received news that her father was very ill. This prompted her to return home. Robert Scott passed away in September of that year. (1910)</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After her father’s death Kate continued to teach and help her mother run the store. </span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">I</span></span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">n 1912 Kate’s mother sold the store and family home. They relocated in Toronto. This was where she married Henry Mundell Aitken on October 7, 1914. They moved to Minnesota where Henry had an established real estate business. Kate continued to teach. </span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After the death of Henry’s brother, the couple moved back to Beeton so that Henry could run his family’s flour mill. They also bought a small farm. <span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate ran a very successful poultry business. Two of her hens held world egg-laying records. Having branched out to include garden, orchard and dairy produce, she became an expert in canning and preserving. The family had expanded to include two lovely daughters. Anne and Mary. </span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">In 1920 she was instrumental in forming the Beeton chapter of the Women’s Institute. Kate was the branch’s first president. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">As a result of her farming expertise and voracious appetite for reading, Kate was quite knowledgeable. She was hired as a lecturer by the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. The lecture courses were directed at rural areas across Canada. She also became a part time newspaper correspondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size:12pt;">Kate’s first official overseas trip was to London England, where she was in charge of the Canadian exhibit for the Empire Craft Exhibition. Kate was asked to present a handmade bedspread from Quebec, to the Duchess of York. Through the Women’s Institute of Canada, she was invited to have tea with the future King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and their baby daughter Queen Elizabeth II. </span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">During hard times in the depression, Kate’s family was no exception. To compound matters the farm was vandalized by fire and robbery. It was a devastating experience and financial setback. Lady luck stepped in and Kate was asked by an advertising company to host a series of short cooking schools in Montreal. The main theme was management and economy in the kitchen. The courses were expanded to include other parts of Canada. This gave rise to several new opportunities. An American railway executive approached Kate about starting canning centers State side, to help struggling farmers. “Out of that casual conversation, I got me another job.” (Aitken, 121).<sup> </sup>What started out as three canning centers producing jams, jellies and pickles for sale to the railway for use in dining cars, blossomed into canning co-operative plants. Another invitation was extended to host the cooking school at the Chicago Women’s World’s Fair. It was billed as “The Farm Kitchen”, but according to Kate it was quite posh.  “After a few days, I too became accustomed to this Alice in Wonderland atmosphere and earnestly talked economy from a $5000  farm kitchen" (Aitken, 123).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">The Cooking schools were also held at the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto. Kate went on to become Director of Women’s Activities. “My weakness has always been that the success of the job meant far more to me than the financial returns. Money isn’t everything. To be part of a project that started with a twelve-foot booth and worked up to a five building enterprise, is to be caught up in the magic of growth, than which there is nothing more exhilarating" (Aitken, 139).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate’s start to a very long broadcasting career, came while doing a cooking show live from Prince Edward Island. It was a hit. Kate hosted and wrote the shows. “I was allowed to follow my own format of news, household hints, fashions, and human-interest stories" (Aitken, 142). Her programmes were heard three times a day throughout the year. She was heard locally, nationally and internationally. Kate’s broadcasting career led her to travel the world covering important events as well as meetings and interviews with famous personalities at home and abroad. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">When television became popular, she also found herself doing food commercials for a weekly variety show.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"></span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">In 1945 she was “retained by the British Ministry of Food to do a survey of food conditions in newly liberated or conquered countries" (Aitken, 177).<sup> </sup>This gave her firsthand experience of the aftermath of war.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">On a lighter side, another venture was “The Spa” just outside of Toronto.  Kate started a weekend getaway for women, in a country setting. The experience came complete with theme decorated private rooms, dining and lounge area, beauty rooms, health care, masseuses, walks in the woods and a full staff. The retreat offered relaxation and plenty of pampering. She had acquired a great deal of know-how from writing beauty columns and covering fashion shows for newspapers and magazines.  Not to forget her co-ordination of the “thirty seven fashion shows” daily at the National Exhibition (Aitken, 132).  Her expertise was invaluable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate was appointed to the Canadian Radio and Television Board of Broadcast Governors in 1958.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After a long and fruitful life, Kate Aitken passed away on December 11, 1971. Her final resting place is the Beeton United Church  Cemetery.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span>              </p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">A memorial plaque was placed in her honour on June 3, 1973 in Beeton Community Park.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">As we celebrate International Women’s Day, “Mrs. A.” was, and still is, a true inspiration for women in all walks of life. Her place in the long line of influential women is well deserved.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0">Citations</span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0">Aitken, K.S. (1959). <em>Making your living is fun. </em>Toronto, NY: Longmans, Green. </span></p><p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span aria-hidden="true"></span>Images</span>: </p><p>Images on this page marked as public domain are free to re-use. If you do re-use public domain images, please credit the Simcoe County Archives as the source and link back to this page.<span aria-hidden="true" style="display:none;"></span></p>
Researching Indigenous Histories in Simcoe Countyhttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Indigenous-History-Resources.aspx5/28/2021 1:21:11 AMResearching Indigenous Histories in Simcoe County<div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW111416476" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;"><p><span data-contrast="auto" class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​This page </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">provides</span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink"> an introduction to archival </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">records and collections that relate to </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">Indigenous </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:arial, sans-serif;background-image:initial;background-position:initial;background-size:initial;background-repeat:initial;background-attachment:initial;background-origin:initial;background-clip:initial;">persons and communities</span> in Simcoe County. The focus will primarily be on resources available at the Simcoe County Archives, but links and direction to relevant resources from other institutions are also included.​</span></span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink"></span></span><span style="font-size:1em;">This page will be updated to reflect ​additional knowledge and resources as they become </span><span style="font-size:1em;">available​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">.</span></p></div><div><h2><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">Indigenous</span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink"> Communities in Simcoe County</span></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":40,"335559739":120,"335559740":240}"> </span></h2></div><div><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">Indigenous </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">peoples </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">have lived on the land currently known as Simcoe County for thousands of years. </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">When </span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink">Jesuit missionaries</span><span data-ccp-charstyle="Hyperlink"> arrived </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">roughly 600 years ago from Europe, the land was home to the Huron-​​Wendat, Petun, Neutral, Haudenosaunee and the <span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Anishinaabe​</span>​​ peoples.​</span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span></span></span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"><span></span>Simcoe County is</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> located </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">on</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> the traditional territory of the </span><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:1em;"><a href="http://www.anishinabek.ca/first-nations/" title="Anishinabek Nation" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Anishinaabeg​</span>​</a></span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">. The Anishinaabeg</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> include the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">Ojibwe</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">, Odawa, and Pottawatomi nations, collectively known as the Three Fires Confederacy. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">There are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">two</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> First Nations</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> r</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">eserves located within the geog</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">raphic boundaries of the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">C</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-size:1em;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;margin:0px;padding:0px;">ounty: <a href="https://www.ramafirstnation.ca/" title="The C​hippewas of Rama First Nation" target="_blank">The C​hippewas of Rama First Nation</a> and​ <a href="http://www.chimnissing.ca/" title="Beausoleil First Nation" target="_blank">Beausoleil First Nation​</a>.​​</span><a href="http://www.chimnissing.ca/" style="background-color:transparent;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><span class="EOP SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">​</span></a></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW111416476" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW111416476 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><a href="http://www.chimnissing.ca/" style="background-color:transparent;"><span class="EOP SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span></a><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">T</span><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">he </span><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">C​ounty </span><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">is also home to the Métis people, many of whom descend from the <a href="https://www.metisnation.org/news/mno-highlights-georgian-bay-historic-metis-community-and-invites-ontarians-to-learn-more/" title="historic Georgian Bay ​Métis community" target="_blank">historic Georgian Bay ​Métis community​</a> based in​ <span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">the </span><a href="https://heritage.penetanguishene.ca/heritage-location.php?id=38" title="Penetanguishene heritage: Métis" target="_blank" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Town of Penetanguishene​</a><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> and Townshi​ps of Tiny and Tay</span></span><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">. Simcoe County is covered by Region 7 of the </span><a href="https://www.metisnation.org/" title="Métis Nation of Ontario" target="_blank" style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Métis Nation of Ontario​</a><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">. In addition to these communities, the County is home to many other First Nations, Inuit, and Métis citizens.​</span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW111416476 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">​<br></span></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW111416476" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW111416476 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span class="EOP SCXW111416476 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span></span><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">In Canada, treaties govern the rights, responsibilities, and relationships between provincial and federal governments and First Nations communities. The area now called Simcoe County is subject to a number of treaties, including the pre-confederate Southern Ontario Treaties of 1764-1862, including the <a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1370372152585/1581293792285#ucls8" title="Penetanguishene Treaty No.5" target="_blank">Penetanguishene Treaty No.5</a> and <a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1370372152585/1581293792285#ucls15" title="Lake Simcoe Treaty No.16​" target="_blank">Lake Simcoe Treaty No.16​</a>,  and the post-confederate </span><a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1542370282768/1542370308434" title="Inforgraphic Williams Treaties of 1923​" target="_blank" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Williams Treaties of 1923​</a><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">.  ​​</span></p></div><div><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;">​</span><br></div><h2>​A note on other institutional records<br></h2><div><p>As a municipal archives the Simcoe County Archives do not hold original documents such as treaties or Indigenous Affairs records. These records were created and are held by agents of the Federal and Provincial governments, and can be found at the <a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/aboriginal-heritage/Pages/introduction.aspx" title="Indigenous heritage at Library and the Archives of Canada" target="_blank">Library and Archives of Canada</a> or <a href="http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/microfilm/aboriginal_peoples_records.aspx" title="Records Relating to Aboriginal Peoples at the Archives of Ontario" target="_blank">Archives of Ontario</a>.<span style="font-size:1em;"> </span></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;"><strong>Residential Schools</strong></span></p><p>While there were no <a href="https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/residential-schools" title="Indian Residential Schools" target="_blank">Indian Residential Schools</a> located within Simcoe County, there were at least two Indian Day Schools. The Rama Indian Day School was operated by the United Church of Canada, and the <a href="http://sistersofservice.ca/missions/ontario/christianisland.html" title="Christian Island Roman Catholic Indian Day School​" target="_blank">Christian Island Indian Day School​</a> ​​was operated by the Roman Catholic Church<a href="https://www.unitedchurcharchives.ca/residential-school-records-in-united-church-of-canada-archives/" title="Residential School Records in United Church of Canada Archives">​</a>. Some records related to these institutions are held by the <a href="https://www.unitedchurcharchives.ca/residential-school-records-in-united-church-of-canada-archives/" title="Residential School Records in United Church of Canada Archives" target="_blank">United Church of Canada Archives</a>, a partial catalogue of which can be accessed here: <a href="https://www.unitedchurcharchives.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/DaySchoolGuide_COMPLETE-2020-compressed.pdf" title="United Church of Canada Archives Day School Research Guide" target="_blank">United Church of Canada Archives Day School Research Guide</a>.<br></p><p>Indian Residential School records are also held by the <a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/aboriginal-heritage/Pages/residential-schools-resource-sheets.aspx" title="Residential School Records Resources at Library and Archives of Canada" target="_blank">Library and Archives of Canada​</a>.​<br></p><p>For more information about the Indian Residential School system​ and Indian Day Schools, please read the <a href="https://nctr.ca/records/reports/" title="Truth and Reconciliation Commission Reports" target="_blank">Reports and Findings​</a> of the <a href="http://www.trc.ca/" title="Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" target="_blank">Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada</a>. </p><div>For survivors and their families <a href="https://www.irsss.ca/faqs/how-do-i-reach-the-24-hour-crisis-line" title="The Indian Residential Schools Crisis Line" target="_blank">The Indian Residential Schools Crisis Line</a> is available 24-hours a day for anyone experiencing pain or distress as a result of his or her Residential school experience​: <span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">1-8</span><span style="font-size:1em;">66-925-4419</span></div>​​​<br></div><div><h2><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">​Resources at the Simcoe County Archives​</span></h2></div><div><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">At the Simcoe County Archives content related to Indigenous peoples and histories can be found in corporate and municipal r</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ecords, p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">rivate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> collections, the Simcoe County Archives newspaper collection, and the Reference Library</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></div><div><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><br></span></div><div style="text-align:center;"><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">​​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/CoraidNewsCollage_1080.jpg" title="Coraid News, 1973-1974" target="_blank"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/CoraidNewsCollage_480.jpg" alt="Coraid News, 1973-1974" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></span></div><h4 style="text-align:center;">Simcoe County Newspaper Collection, <span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Coraid News</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">: The Voice of the People</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> –</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> a partial run from 19</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">73 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">–</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">197</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">4. P</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">roduced in </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Rama First Nation.</span><br><br></h4><div><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Additionally, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">access to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> Ontario</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">birth, marria</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ge an</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> death records</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Federal census i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">nformation can be accessed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> on site at the Archives through Ancest</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">r</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">y.ca. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></div><div><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;"><br></span></div><div><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;">It is important to note that </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2 SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">the majority of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> the records and collections at the Simcoe County Archives were created, accumulated and/ or donated by non-Indigenous</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun CommentStart SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;">persons</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;">. Some of the earliest and most substantive collections acquired by the Archives were donated by local archaeologists and specifically focus on the pre-contact sites and material culture of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;">Indigenous communities in the County. These records, while they focus on Indigenous history, lack Indigenous voices and perspectives. </span></div><div><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="background-color:transparent;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><br></span></span></span></div><div><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;"></span><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="background-color:transparent;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Archives staff are working to identify the gaps, silences, and biases present within these records and collections and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"> are working to create better, more contextualized, archival descriptions</span>​. </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">For more information about this process, please refer to our <a href="/Archives/Pages/Historical-Language-Content-Advisory.aspx" title="Historical Content and Language Advisory" target="_blank">Historical Content and Language Advisory​</a>.</span><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> ​</span></span><span style="background-color:transparent;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">​</span></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW243056203" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW243056203 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">​<br></span></span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW243056203 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span class="EOP SCXW243056203 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span></span></p></div><div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW55991718" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;"><div><h2>Blogs and e​xhibits​<br></h2></div><div><div><div><ul><li><p>​<span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">​<a href="/Archives/Pages/Blog/National-Indigenous-History-Month.aspx" title="​​National Indigenous History Month 2017" target="_blank">National Indigenous History Month </a></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":120,"335559740":259}"> </span></p></li><li><p><a href="/Archives/Pages/National_Indigenous_Peoples_Day_2020.aspx" title="Jacob Gill Gaudaur " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 3">Jacob Gill </span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 3">Gaudaur</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 3"> </span></span></a></p></li><li><p><a title="Simcoe County Remembers​" href="/_layouts/15/FIXUPREDIRECT.ASPX?WebId=a41fbfa1-82ca-4939-9932-d97b8d6ad3e9&TermSetId=fb933945-005d-43ad-bb62-b84ef1fa9284&TermId=8039b373-5bb4-45f8-b028-724f31461832" target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">Simcoe County Remembers​</span></a><br><span style="font-size:1em;">The Simcoe County Remembers database contains the names of 1,009 men and women who had connections to Simcoe County and who died while in service or as a result of wounds or injuries sustained during the First World War.</span></p></li><li><p><a><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"></span></a><a href="/Archives/Pages/Discover-Family-History-at-Simcoe-County-Archives.aspx" title="Researching Family History​ ​​" target="_blank">Researching Family His<span>tory​</span> ​​</a><br></p></li></ul></div></div></div><h2><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US">Institu</span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US">tional records</span></h2><p>These resources are available <span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US">for review </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US">on site at the Archives. To book a Reading Room Appointment please visit the <a href="/_layouts/15/FIXUPREDIRECT.ASPX?WebId=a41fbfa1-82ca-4939-9932-d97b8d6ad3e9&TermSetId=fb933945-005d-43ad-bb62-b84ef1fa9284&TermId=b52ec9c2-4144-4cde-b97f-abc078ea6dad" title="Archives Booking Service" target="_blank">Archives Booking Service page​</a>. </span></p><h4><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US"><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">Corporate and </span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">Municipal</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2"> records</span></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":40,"335559739":120,"335559740":240}"> </span></h4></div><div class="ListContainerWrapper SCXW55991718 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><ul><li><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">The Corporation of the County of Simcoe</span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> fonds</span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Corporation of the Township of Rama fonds</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Corporation of th</span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">e </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Town of Midland</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> fonds</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Corporation of the Township</span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span></span></span><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Tiny </span></span></span><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">fon</span></span></span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ds</span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li></ul></div></div><h4>Private fonds and collections<br></h4><ul><li>A.F. Hunter papers  ​<br></li><li><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO15860&SE=1212&RN=2&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=1723&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Ardagh Family fonds" target="_blank"><span><span style="font-size:1em;">A</span><span style="font-size:1em;">rda</span><span style="font-size:1em;">gh Fa</span><span style="font-size:1em;">mily fon</span></span>ds</a><br></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">C. Beck Manufacturing Company Ltd. fonds </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO13016&SE=1211&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14908&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Djenane Mackellar Lemmon collection " target="_blank">Djenane Mackellar Lemmon collection  </a>​</span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=PREV_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO16066&SE=1213&RN=2&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14863&NR=1&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="E. Ross Channen collection ​" target="_blank">E. Ross Channen collection  ​</a>​</span></li><ul><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=NEXT_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO16066&SE=1213&RN=1&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14863&NR=2&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Indian Data​" target="_blank">Indian Data​</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO16066&SE=1213&RN=2&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14864&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Records of Indian Site Excavations" target="_blank">Records of Indian Site Excavations</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO17555&SE=1215&RN=1&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14866&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Copeland Site Materials​">Copeland Site Materials​</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO17895&SE=1217&RN=1&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14867&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Canadian Heritage​" target="_blank">Canadian Heritage</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO18028&SE=1219&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14868&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Local History​" target="_blank"> Local History​</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;"> <a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=NEXT_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO16066&SE=1213&RN=2&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14863&NR=3&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Personal Files">Personal Files</a></span></span></li><li><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial;">​ <a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO18140&SE=1220&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=14870&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Loose Items​" target="_blank">Loose Items​</a></span></span></li></ul><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Fort Ste. Marie collection </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Gaudaur Family collection ​</span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Hanley Clarke collection </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Huron Institute collection  </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Kenneth E. Kidd collection </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Norman D. Clarke collection </span></li><ul><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Archaeological papers  </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Cartographic papers </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Historical papers </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">​Photograph index </span></li></ul><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Orillia Public Library collection  </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">Ontario Historical Association collection </span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"></span>The Township of Oro Historical Committee collection<span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></li><ul><li>​<a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO7270&SE=1232&RN=7&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=33087&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="​​Peter Scott Slide collection ​" target="_blank" style="font-size:1em;">​Peter Scott Slide collection ​</a><br></li></ul><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO8462&SE=1234&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=31343&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Paul Delaney collection ​" target="_blank">Paul Delaney collection  ​</a></span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"></span><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO19877&SE=1223&RN=2&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=16090&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Jarratt-Switzer Family collection​" target="_blank" style="font-size:1em;">Jarratt-Switzer Family collection​</a><span style="font-size:1em;">​​​</span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"></span>​Leigh collection   <br></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO13295&SE=1237&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=10874&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="W.A. Fisher fonds ​" target="_blank">W.A. Fisher fonds ​</a></span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO13420&SE=1238&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=32449&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Wally McNeice collection ​" target="_blank">Wally McNeice collection ​</a></span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;"><a href="https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=https://apps.simcoe.ca/dbtw-wpd/search.htm&GI=&TN=descrip3&SN=AUTO13576&SE=1239&RN=0&MR=15&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&XP=&RF=Web+Brief&EF=Basic+Record+Form&DF=Web+Full&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=3&ID=&MF=&DT=&ST=0&IR=31106&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=NewSearch2017" title="Stuart N. Keyes Limited fonds ​" target="_blank">Stuart N. Keyes Limited fonds ​</a></span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">S</span><span style="font-size:1em;">imcoe County Library Co-operative fonds <br></span></li><li><span style="font-size:1em;">S</span><span style="font-size:1em;">ainte-Marie A</span><span style="font-size:1em;">mong the Huron Reference Library collection ​​​</span></li></ul><div><div><div><h4><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="font-size:16px;"><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US"><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">Select l</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">a</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">nd r</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 2">ecords</span></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":40,"335559739":120,"335559740":240}"> </span></span></h4></div><div><p></p><ul><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Reel of microfilm - Department of Indian Affairs, re. Town Plot of Orillia and Indian Reserve between Orillia and Coldwater, 973-45</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> ​</span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">1834 Census of Coldwater Reserve, “Coldwater Reserve” file, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">983-84 </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">William Hawkins (Deputy Surveyor).  “Report and Description of the Native Reserve between Lake Simcoe and Coldwater” York, March 14, 1833, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">987-15 </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Grant to Irwin Moore. N ½ Lo 16, Con. IV, Innisfil Township, 1853, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">970-87 </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Grant to Council of the District of Simcoe. Lot 8, North Coldwater Street, Orillia, 1846, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">970-87 </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Grant to Richard Hodges. Lot 6, North Side Coldwater Street, Orillia, 1847 , 970-87</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Transfer of Lands by the Chippewa Nation to the King of England. In the North Part of the County. Signed at Niagara, 1795,  Xerox only, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">970-87</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Grant to John Currie. Lot 12, East Side Front Street, Orillia, 1846, </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA">970-87 </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}"> </span></li></ul><p></p></div></div><div><div style="color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><h4><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="font-size:16px;"><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US">Newspapers and publications </span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":40,"335559739":120,"335559740":240}"> </span></span></h4></div><div><ul><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Simcoe County </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Archives </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Newspaper Collectio</span></span></span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">n</span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></li><ul><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Coraid News</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">: The Voice of the People</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> –</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> a partial run from 1973 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">–</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">197</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">4. P</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">roduced in </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Rama First Nation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">​​Smoke Signals – </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">A</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> zine produced </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">in </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-CA" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Beausoleil First Nation​</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW55991718 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">.​</span></span></span></li></ul></ul><h4>Thematic finding aids<br></h4><p>Thematic finding aids are inventories of many different records and collections organized around a place, subject, or organiz<span style="font-size:1em;">a</span><span style="font-size:1em;">tion. ​</span><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></p><div><p></p><ul><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"><span class="ms-rteStyle-Normal"><span style="font-size:16px;">Archaeology <span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="font-size:12pt;background-color:transparent;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></span>​</span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Art/Artists Thematic finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Barrie – Miscellaneous thematic finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Barrie – </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">News clippings</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> thematic finding aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Cemeteries and Cemetery Studies finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Centennial Historical Booklets</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Depression Years finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Ethnology/ Ethnic groups finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Huronia Historic Sites finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">  </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Huronia Historic Sites Plaques finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">  </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Moving Images finding aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Native Peoples finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun CommentStart ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Township of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Orillia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">thematic finding </span><span class="NormalTextRun CommentStart SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Town of Midland thematic finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Township of Nottawasaga thematic finding aid</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Township of Rama thematic finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span></span></li><li><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" lang="EN-US" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;">Village of Coldwater thematic finding aid</span><span class="EOP SCXW15368450 BCX0 ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559738":60,"335559739":60,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> ​</span></span></li></ul><p></p><p></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"></span></p><p></p><div><div><h2><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA"><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 1">C</span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 1">ounty of </span><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 1">Simcoe</span></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":320,"335559739":0,"335559740":240}"> resource</span>s<br></h2></div><div><div><ul><li><p><a href="https://museum.simcoe.ca/exhibits/native" title="Simcoe County Museum Peoples Gallery">S​imcoe County Museum - Peoples Gallery</a><br></p></li><li><p><a href="/_layouts/15/FIXUPREDIRECT.ASPX?WebId=a41fbfa1-82ca-4939-9932-d97b8d6ad3e9&TermSetId=fb933945-005d-43ad-bb62-b84ef1fa9284&TermId=910054f8-e11d-4cb0-a1a5-50f80a017431" title="Simcoe County Archaeological Management Plan" target="_blank">Simcoe County Archaeological Management Plan</a><br></p></li></ul></div><div style="font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;"><h2><span style="font-size:26px;">Local Indigenous Communities</span></h2></div></div><div><p></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW58008145 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"></p><ul><li><p><a href="https://www.barrienfc.ca/" title="Barrie Native Friendship Centre" target="_blank">Barrie Native Friendship Centre</a><br></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.chimnissing.ca/" title="Beausoleil First Nation" target="_blank">Beausoleil First Nation</a><br></p></li><li><p><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA"><a href="https://www.barrienfc.ca/"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"></span></a><a href="https://www.ramafirstnation.ca/" title="Chippewas of Rama First Nation" target="_blank">Chippewas of Rama First </a></span></p></li><li><p><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA"><a href="https://www.gbnfc.com/" title="Georgian Bay Native Friendship Centre" target="_blank">Georgian Bay Native Friendship Centre</a>​</span></p></li><li><a href="https://www.metisnation.org/" title="Métis Nation of Ontario " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Métis</span> Nation of Ontario</span> </a><p></p></li><ul><li><p><a href="https://www.barriemetiscouncil.com/" title="​Barrie South Simcoe Métis Council" target="_blank">​Barrie South Simcoe <span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Métis</span> Council</a><br></p></li><li><p><a href="https://georgianbaymetiscouncil.com/" title="Georgian Bay Métis​ Council" target="_blank">Georgian Bay <span style="font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Métis</span> Council</a><br></p></li></ul></ul></div><div class="SCXW58008145 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><div><h2><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-US"><span data-ccp-parastyle="heading 1">Local heritage institutions</span></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559738":320,"335559739":0,"335559740":240}"> </span></span></h2></div></div><div><ul><li><p>​<a href="https://coldwatermill.com/" title="The Coldwater Heritage Mill" target="_blank">The Coldwater Heritage Mill</a><br></p></li><li><p><a href="https://huroniamuseum.com/" title="Huronia Museum and Huron Ouendat Village " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Huronia Museum and Huron Ouendat Village</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> </span></a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://www.penetanguishene.ca/museum/" title="Penetanguishene Centennial Museum & Archives " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Penetanguishene Centennial Museum & Archives</span></a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://firstnations.innisfillibrary.ca/" title="Our Stories Innisfil - ​First Nations of Simcoe County" target="_blank">Our Stories Innisfil - ​First Nations of Simcoe County</a>​<br></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.saintemarieamongthehurons.on.ca/sm/en/Home/index.htm">Huronia Historical Parks - ​Saint-Marie Among the H<span style="font-size:1em;">urons</span><br></a></p></li></ul></div><div class="SCXW58008145 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><div class="ListContainerWrapper SCXW58008145 BCX0" style="color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;margin:0px;padding:0px;"><span data-contrast="auto" class="TextRun EmptyTextRun SCXW58008145 BCX0" lang="EN-CA" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW58008145" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW58008145 BCX0" role="heading" aria-level="1" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;"><font face="oswald, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:26px;"><b>Other resources</b></span></font></p></div><div class="ListContainerWrapper SCXW58008145 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><ul><li>​<a href="https://native-land.ca/">Native-Land​</a><br></li></ul></div></div><div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr BCX0 SCXW58008145" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW58008145 BCX0" role="heading" aria-level="1" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:#365f91;"><span data-contrast="none" class="TextRun Underlined SCXW58008145 BCX0" lang="EN-US" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:16pt;text-decoration-line:underline;line-height:25px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW58008145 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="heading 1" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">​​</span></span><span style="color:#444444;font-family:oswald, sans-serif;font-size:1.618em;font-weight:bold;">Treaties with the British Crown and Canadian Government</span></p></div></div><div><div><p></p><ul><li><p>​<a href="http://www.landclaimscoalition.ca/assets/Royal-Proclamation-1763-Fact-Sheet.pdf" title="Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Fact sheet " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Fact sheet</span> </a></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.landclaimscoalition.ca/assets/Royal-Proclamation-1763-Fact-Sheet.pdf" title="Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Fact sheet " target="_blank"></a><a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-CIRNAC-RCAANC/DAM-PPLCOM/STAGING/texte-text/nahm_250_pt_1379596017260_eng.pdf" title="Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Relationships, Rights and Treaties " target="_blank" style="font-size:1em;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Relationships, Rights and Treaties </span></a><br></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.sfu.ca/~palys/The%20Royal%20Proclamation.pdf" title="Royal Proclamation of 1763 text " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"> Proclamation of 1763 text</span> </a></p></li><li><p><a href="http://www.sfu.ca/~palys/The%20Royal%20Proclamation.pdf" title="Royal Proclamation of 1763 text " target="_blank"></a><a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/ontario-first-nations-maps" title="Ontario Treaty Maps " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">Ontario Treaty Map</span></a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/ontario-first-nations-maps" title="Ontario Treaty Maps " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"></span></a><a href="https://williamstreatiesfirstnations.ca/" title="Williams Treaties First Nations" target="_blank">Williams Treaties First Nations​</a>​</p></li></ul></div></div><div><div><ul><li><p><a href="https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/williams-treaties" title="Williams Treaties " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Williams Treaties</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559685":1080,"335559739":120,"335559740":259}"> </span></a></p></li><li><p>​<a href="http://www.anishinabek.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Williams-Treaty-Chippewa.pdf" title="​Williams Treaty – Text " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Williams Treaty – Text</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559685":1080,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> </span></a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/CollectionSearch/Pages/record.aspx?app=fonandcol&IdNumber=3987611" title="Williams Treaty - Chippewas of Christian Island, Georgina Isle and Rama held at the Library and Archives of Canada " target="_blank"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Williams Treaty - Chippewas of Christian Island, Georgina Isle and Rama held at the Library and Archives of Canada</span><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559685":1080,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> </span></a></p></li><li><p><a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/CollectionSearch/Pages/record.aspx?app=fonandcol&IdNumber=3987611" title="Williams Treaty - Chippewas of Christian Island, Georgina Isle and Rama held at the Library and Archives of Canada "><span data-ccp-props="{"134233279":true,"201341983":0,"335559685":1080,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"></span></a><a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1542370282768/1542370308434" title="Williams Treaties First Nations Settlement Agreement​" target="_blank">Williams Treaties First Nations Settlement Agreement​</a>​​</p><br></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div></div></div><p>​​<br>​<br>​<br><br>​<br><br></p>
Lady Sarah Maitland and Tiny, Tay, and Floshttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Dog-Days.aspx6/24/2022 7:58:41 PMLady Sarah Maitland and Tiny, Tay, and Flos<p><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">​​As we enter the dog days of summer, staff at the Archives are exploring the surprising canine connection to the name origins of the Township of Tiny, the Township of Tay, and the historic T​ownship of Flos (now Springwater).</span></p><p><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">​​​Lady Sarah Maitland</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">, née Lennox</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> (1792-1873)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> was the second wife of Sir Peregrine Maitland, the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">Lieutenant-Governor</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> of Upper Canada.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">She met Sir Maitland at a ball, and though the two wanted to marry, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">her father, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">the Duke of Richmond</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> refused to consent due to Sir Maitland’s lower status. With this refusal, Lady Maitland waited for her father to leave town and then immediately married Sir Maitland. Upon his arrival home, the </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">Duke</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> could only accept the marriage</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;">Though most records focus on her husband, it is said Lady Maitland was referred to as “the lovely Lennox.” However, in Simcoe County, Lady Maitland is perhaps best known for her Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs.</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/1Maitland.jpg" title="A portrait of Lady Sarah Maitland by Mrs. Ince"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/1Maitland_480.jpg" alt="A portrait of Lady Sarah Maitland by Mrs. Ince" style="margin:5px;" /></a> </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Lady Sarah Maitland, by Mrs. Ince.</span><span class="EOP SCXW174834607 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">  </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Source</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">: Henry James Morgan, ed., </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Types of Canadian Women and of women who are or have been connected to Canada</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW174834607 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> (Toronto: William Briggs, 1903), 228.</span><span class="EOP SCXW174834607 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Cavalier King Charles Spaniels are known for their gentle and loving nature. Their namesake, King Charles I and his son Charles II, were said to be particularly fond of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels to the point where diarist Samuel Pepys claimed Charles II</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> seemed more interested in breeding the dogs than ruling Britain. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">With silky, wavy fur and only weighing between 13-18 pounds, these spaniels ma</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">de perfect lapdogs, and their pretty looks made them popular in aristocratic society. Hence, it is no surprise that Lady Maitland had three Cavalier King Charles Spaniels: Tiny, Tay, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25433349 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW25433349 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span><br></p><p><span class="EOP SCXW25433349 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><br></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="EOP SCXW25433349 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/1-Maitland1973.87.1LadyMaitland.jpg" title="Lady Sarah Maitland, painted by Elizabeth A. Birnie pre-1914"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/1-Maitland1973.87.1LadyMaitland_480.jpg" alt="Lady Sarah Maitland, painted by Elizabeth A. Birnie pre-1914" style="margin:5px;" /></a> </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Lady Sarah Maitland, painted by Elizabeth A. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Birnie</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, pre-1914</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW248322339 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">  </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Source</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW248322339 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">: Courtesy of Simcoe County Museum</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW248322339 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">These names may seem familiar, as each have been a township in Simcoe County (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> now amalgamated into Springwater Township). </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Because of her husband’s title of Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW93727585 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, Lady Maitland was given the opportunity to name three townships as Simcoe County began to develop, all of which she named after her spaniels. To this day, no one is sure why she decided to do this, if she was being endearing or foolish. Over the years, it has been said that changing the names of these townships would not be unjustified, but the names remained.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW93727585 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="font-size:12pt;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span><br></p><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Belden_Atlas-pg-75-Hoggs-Map-Tiny-Tay-Flos.jpg" title="Hogg’s Map of Tiny, Tay, and Flos from 1871 " target="_blank"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Belden_Atlas-pg-75-Hoggs-Map-Tiny-Tay-Flos_480.jpg" alt="Hogg’s Map of Tiny, Tay, and Flos from 1871 " style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">967-143 </span><span class="TabRun IPSelectionBlob BlobObject DragDrop SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;font-size:12pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;text-align:left;width:0px;"><span class="TabChar SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:pre !important;"> </span><span class="TabLeaderChars SCXW112404869 BCX0" aria-hidden="true" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;top:0px;left:0px;white-space:pre !important;"></span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Hogg’s </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Map of Tiny, Tay, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, 1871</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW112404869 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW112404869 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Simcoe County Archives Atlas Collection</span><span class="EOP SCXW112404869 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Strange as this may be, Tiny, Tay and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> are not the only places in Simcoe County named after animals. While many places were named after family or hometowns back in Europe, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Beeton</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> was named after D</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">avid Allanson</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> Jones’ </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">apiary</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW84170704 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The village was originally named Clarksville, but after Jones became widely popular for being the first commercial beekeeper in Canada, the village opted to change its name to honour Jones and his bees.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW84170704 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="EOP SCXW84170704 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2004-04_Canadian-Bee-Journal-Vol-IV-No-44-Cover-Full-Edit_E22-B4-R1A-S9-Sh4063.jpg" title="Cover of The Canadian Bee Journal from 1889 " target="_blank"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2004-04_Canadian-Bee-Journal-Vol-IV-No-44-Cover-Full-Edit_480.jpg" alt="Cover of The Canadian Bee Journal from 1889 " style="margin:5px;" /></a> <span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">2004-04 </span><span class="TabRun IPSelectionBlob BlobObject DragDrop SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;font-size:12pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;color:#000000;width:0px;"><span class="TabChar SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:pre !important;"> </span><span class="TabLeaderChars SCXW41642285 BCX0" aria-hidden="true" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;top:0px;left:0px;white-space:pre !important;"></span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Cover of The Canadian Bee Journal, Vol. IV No. 44, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41642285 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">1889</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW41642285 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></span></p><p><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:1em;"><span class="EOP SCXW84170704 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">In more current times, Tiny, Tay and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> Townships have been known for their historic sites, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">events</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, and picturesque scenery. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW94255724 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">These dog-named townships are the perfect place for you and your furry friend to explore as summer winds to an end.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW94255724 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:1em;">​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2015-08%20%20%20Aerial%20photo%20of%20Ross%20Usher%20Property%20%20%20B3%20R0B%20S3%20Sh3.jpg" title="Aerial photo of Ross Usher’s property, Flos, Concession 7 north half Lot 11" target="_blank"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2015-08%20%20%20Aerial%20photo%20of%20Ross%20Usher%20Property_480.jpg" alt="Aerial photo of Ross Usher’s property, Flos, Concession 7 north half Lot 11" style="margin:5px;" /></a> </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">2015-08 </span><span class="TabRun IPSelectionBlob BlobObject DragDrop SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;font-size:12pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;text-align:left;width:0px;"><span class="TabChar SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:pre !important;"> </span><span class="TabLeaderChars SCXW265341447 BCX0" aria-hidden="true" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;top:0px;left:0px;white-space:pre !important;"></span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Aerial photo of Ross Usher’s property, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Flos</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> Con 7 N ½ Lot 11, after 1920</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW265341447 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW265341447 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"></span></span><span class="EOP SCXW265341447 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2005-40%20Martyr%27s%20Shrine%20Midland%20ca.%201926%20%20(front)%20B1%20R5B%20S7%20Sh2.jpg" title="The Martyr's Shrine in Midland, Tay Township, 192"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2005-40%20Martyr%27s%20Shrine%20Midland%20ca.%201926%20%20(front)%20B1%20R5B%20S7%20Sh2.jpg" alt="The Martyr's Shrine in Midland, Tay Township, 1926" style="margin:5px;" /></a>​</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">2005-40</span><span class="TabRun IPSelectionBlob BlobObject DragDrop SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;font-size:12pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;text-align:left;width:0px;"><span class="TabChar SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:pre !important;"> </span><span class="TabLeaderChars SCXW146309878 BCX0" aria-hidden="true" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;top:0px;left:0px;white-space:pre !important;"></span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> Martyrs’ Shrine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Tay Township</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, ca</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> 1926</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW146309878 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span class="EOP SCXW146309878 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><br></span></p><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><br></span></span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/989-41_Balm-Beach-Colour-Correction_E13-B4-R6B-S3-Sh3.jpg" title="Balm Beach in Tiny Township around 1977" target="_blank"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/989-41_Balm-Beach-Colour-Correction_480.jpg" alt="Balm Beach in Tiny Township around 1977" style="margin:5px;" /></a> </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">989-41</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span></span><span class="TabRun IPSelectionBlob BlobObject DragDrop SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;font-size:12pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;text-align:left;width:0px;"><span class="TabChar SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;white-space:pre !important;"> </span><span class="TabLeaderChars SCXW182718042 BCX0" aria-hidden="true" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;display:inline-block;top:0px;left:0px;white-space:pre !important;"></span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Balm Beach</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, Tiny Township,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ca. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">1977</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW182718042 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW182718042 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Huronia Tourist Association collection</span><span class="EOP SCXW182718042 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><p class="Paragraph SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span class="EOP SCXW146309878 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{"335551550":2,"335551620":2}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><br></span></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146309878 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"></span></span><span class="EOP SCXW146309878 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><p><br></p><div class="SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Works Consulted</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:12pt;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><div class="ListContainerWrapper SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"><ul><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">American Kennel Club. “Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dog.” </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">American Kennel Club</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">. 2022. https://www.akc.org/dog-breeds/cavalier-king-charles-spaniel/</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Elizabeth A. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Birnie</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Lady Maitland, </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">pre-1914, oil painting, 4 x 5’, Simcoe County Museum.</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Gardiner, Herbert Fairbairn. </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Nothing but Names: An inquiry into the origin of the names of the counties and townships of Ontario</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">. Toronto: George N. Morang and Company, Limited, 1899, 230-231.</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Moore, W.F. “Indian Place Names.” In </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Papers and Records of the Wentworth Historical Society Volume Six, </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">edited by Wentworth Historical Society, 17-24. Hamilton: The Griffin & Richmond Co. Ltd. Printers, 1915.</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Morgan, Henry James, ed. </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Types of Canadian Women and of women who are or have been connected to Canada.</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> Toronto: William Briggs, 1903.</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Read, D.B. </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">The Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada and Ontario 1792-1899. </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Toronto: William Briggs, 1900.</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></li><li><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Township of Tiny. “About Tiny: Historical Information.” </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-style:italic;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">Township of Tiny.</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW262160271 BCX0" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> 2022. https://www.tiny.ca/about-tiny</span><span class="EOP SCXW262160271 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:12pt;margin:0px;padding:0px;line-height:19.425px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> ​</span></li></ul></div></div><p>​<br></p><p><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171344355 BCX0" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;white-space:pre-wrap;"></span>​</p>
National Indigenous History Monthhttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/National-Indigenous-History-Month.aspx6/2/2017 6:05:43 PMNational Indigenous History Month<p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">​​​Blog originally posted June 2, 2017​​​​​<br>Updated: June 15, 2021</span> </p><p> <span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteFontSize-2" style="line-height:107%;"> <font color="#000000"> <span style="line-height:107%;">​June is National Indigenous History Month! Within the borders of what today is designated Simcoe County, there is a long history of different Indigenous communities coming together at gathering places, trading, farming, fishing, hunting, crafting, and in general participating in community life. The Simcoe County Archives is a repository of information from all across the County and holds some items of interest to students of local Indigenous history. </span> </font></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"> <span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteFontSize-2" style="line-height:107%;"> <font color="#000000"> <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/975-10%20Bok%20Ka%20Ha%20Ko%20-%201080%20Encl%204%20E18%20B8%20%20R3B%20S7%20Sh3.jpg"> <img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/975-10%20Bok%20Ka%20Ha%20Ko%20-%20480%20Encl%204%20E18%20B8%20%20R3B%20S7%20Sh3.jpg" alt="Bok-Ka-Ha-Ka," style="margin:5px;" /> </a> <br> </font> </span> <span style="font-size:10pt;"> <span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="line-height:107%;font-size:10pt;"> <font color="#000000"> <em>Figure 1: Bok-Ka-Ha-Ka, resident of Simcoe County; photograph part of the<br></em></font></span><em style="color:#000000;">Andrew F. Hunter collection (975-10).</em> <br>Image copyright: Public domain</span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">"Huronia" is an anecdotal name for much of Simcoe County, particularly the area around Midland and Penetanguishene. The name commemorates the history of the  Huron-Wendat </span><span style="font-size:1em;">people that made this area their home for a long time. This population was a confederacy of five Iroquoian speaking nations: the Attinniaenten ("people of the bear"), Hatingeenoniahak ("makers o</span><span style="font-size:1em;">f cords for nets"), Arendaenronnon ("people of the lying rock"), Atahonaenrat ("two whit</span><span style="font-size:1em;">e ears" i.e., "deer people" and Ataronchronon ("people of the bog"). The Huron-Wendat h</span><span style="font-size:1em;">ad close alliances with the Petun, Neutral, Odawa, Nipissing and the Algonquin nations. Archaeology across the county has revealed several villages, the locations of whic</span><span style="font-size:1em;">h are shown on a map at the Simcoe County Archives that was drawn by E.H Thom</span><span style="font-size:1em;">as of Collingwood called "Missions to the Hurons." The Huron-Wendat​ encountered th</span><span style="font-size:1em;">e French in the seventeenth century and, as the name implies, this map also charts th</span><span style="font-size:1em;">e location of several of the missions the French sent into the area. These missions we</span><span style="font-size:1em;">re middle ground areas between North American and European cultures.</span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">The Wendat people were decimated by newly introduced diseases in the middle of the seventeenth century and their remaining populations were dispersed by conflict with the Haudenosaunee/Iroquois nations. Archaeology has helped supplement accounts found in the Jesuit Relations, documenting this period of upheaval. At the Archives, researchers can peruse archaeological records in the Ross Channen collection, the Kenneth Kidd collection, the Paul Delaney collection and the Huronia Historic Association collection. The Archives houses archaeological surveys, maps of the region, drawing of archaeological material and archaeological reports published in reputable journals. </span></p><p>  </p><p style="text-align:center;"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"> <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/989-21%20John%20Big%20Wind%20-%201080%20B2%20R4A%20S6%20Sh4%20P112.jpg"> <img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/989-21%20John%20Big%20Wind%20-%20480%20B2%20R4A%20S6%20Sh4%20P112.jpg" alt="Chief John Big Wind " style="margin:5px;" /> </a> </span>  </p><p style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-size:10pt;"> <span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-3-0" style="font-size:10pt;"> <em>Figure 2: Chief John Big Wind was chief in Rama in the late 19th century, into the first half of the twentieth. Photograph is part of the Frost Scrapbooks collection, donated to the Simcoe County Archives by the Orillia Public Library </em></span> <em> (989-21). <br>Image copyright: Public domain. Credit to Simcoe County Archives and Orillia Public Library is required for re-use.<br></em></span> </p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Today there are several First Nation communities who reside in Simcoe County. The Beausoleil First Nation is located on Christian, Beckwith and Hope Islands at the south end of Georgian Bay. The Chippewas of Rama First Nation, or Mnjikaning First Nation, are located on the eastern side of Lake Couchiching. Both are communities of mostly Ojibwe peoples, though that is a simplification of the complex political identities of the people who settled in the region in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century after the dispersal of the Wendats. Chief William Yellowhead was one of the "Chiefs of the Lake Simcoe and Huron Chippewa Indians" who lived in the Georgian Bay Islands community, which at one point included Beausoleil Island. After he served with the British in the War of 1812 he settled with his people around Orillia. This group was the foundation of the current community at Rama. John Wallace, visiting the Ojibwe communities during the 1890s and early 1900s, documented some Ojibwe language and customs in his notebooks, kept in the Simcoe County Archives. </span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">At the Archives you can look at photographs and documents related to Indigenous life in Simcoe County. For instance, the Archives has a copy of an agreement between the "Chiefs of the Lake Simcoe and Huron Chippewa Indians" and the crown, establishing a Grist Mill at Coldwater for native use, dated to 1834. Farms on the west side of Lake Couchiching, before the land was re-claimed by the crown, could use the mill for their agricultural purposes. Because of their extensive local knowledge, Indigenous men and women have long been employed in the tourism industry, often as guides or as craftspeople. The Christian Island newsletter "Smoke Signals" for 1967 is housed at the Simcoe County Archives. The Archives also has copies of <em>Coraid News</em>, including the initial edition of the paper in May 1973 up until December 1974. This newspaper, printed in Orillia, was for Native People of Central Ontario and was edited by Alan Simcoe. Library and Archives Canada, with funding from the Aboriginal Digital Collections Program, has archived the website "Welcome to the Aboriginal Communities and Business of Simcoe Region." This is a great resource for anyone wondering about aboriginal businesses in the county at the start of the digital age. </span></p><p style="text-align:center;"> <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/978-23%20Two%20native%20guides%20at%20Copperhead%20Dock%20-%201080%20E7%20B3%20R3B%20S3%20Sh2.jpg"> <img class="ms-rteFontSize-2" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/978-23%20Two%20native%20guides%20at%20Copperhead%20Dock%20-%20480%20E7%20B3%20R3B%20S3%20Sh2.jpg" alt="Two Native guides fishing off Copperhead Dock" style="margin:5px;" /> </a>  </p><p style="text-align:center;"> <span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-3-0 ms-rteFontSize-1"> <em>Figure 4: Two Indigenous guides fishing off Copperhead Dock, early twentieth century;<br></em></span><em style="color:#666666;font-size:1em;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">part of the Hanly-Clark photograph collection (978-23).<br>Image copyright: Public domain</span><br></em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"></span></p><p style="text-align:left;"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">The Barrie Native Friendship Centre and the Georgian Bay Native Friendship Centre are a few of the institutions in Simcoe County that offer resources to Native communities and promote indigenous heritage and culture. In addition, the Georgian Bay Métis Council, in Midland Ontario, represents the largest concentration of self-identified Métis in Ontario. </span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Native heritage in the county has interesting resonances from the past into today. Christian Island was once the site of a French mission to the Huron-Wendat​ people and the name of the island is derived from this history. The Mnjikaning First Nation help preserve the fishing weirs found at Atherley Narrows, a man-made construction, attributed to the Wendat people that is approximately 5000 years old. The past and the present come together in many different ways all over the county. To find out more information about Simcoe County Archives's holdings concerning the history of local Indigenous peoples and communities, old and new and everything in between, come visit us, Monday to Friday, 8:30 to 4:00.  </span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Further Reading/Sources:</span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"> <em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Beausoleil First Nation: Pride Unity Strength Vision</em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Beausoleil First Nation, 2017, </span><br class="ms-rteFontSize-2"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"><a href="http://www.chimnissing.ca/index.html">http://www.chimnissing.ca/index.html</a>.</span><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"> Accessed May 31, 2017.</span></p><p> <em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Chippewas of Rama First Nation</em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Chippewas of Rama First Nation, 2015, </span> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"> <a href="http://www.mnjikaning.ca/Pages/home.aspx" title="Link to Chippewas of Rama First Nation website"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">http://www.mnjikaning.ca/Pages/default.aspx</span></a><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2" style="font-size:16px;">.</span>​</span><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"> Accessed May 31, 2017. </span></p><p> <em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Georgian Bay M</em><em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">é</em><em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">tis Council</em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Métis Nation of Ontario, 2014,</span><br class="ms-rteFontSize-2"><a href="http://www.georgianbaymetiscouncil.com/"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">http://www.georgianbaymetiscouncil.com/</span></a><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Accessed May 31, 2017. </span></p><p> <em></em> <em>Georgian Bay Native Friendship Centre</em>. Georgian Bay Native Friendship Centre, <br><a href="http://www.gbnfc.com/">http://www.gbnfc.com/</a>. Accessed May 31, 2017.</p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Heidenreich, C.E. "Huron-Wendat." </span> <em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Canadian Encyclopedia</em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Historica Canada, 2015, </span> <a href="http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/huron/"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/huron/</span></a><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Accessed May 31, 2017.</span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2"></span> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">Hunter, Andrew F. <em>A History of Simcoe County</em>. Barrie: City Council, 1909. Rptd 1998. </span></p><p dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">"Welcome to the Aboriginal Communities and Businesses of Simcoe region." Library and Archives Canada, </span> <a href="http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/eppp-archive/100/205/301/ic/cdc/simcoeregion/index.htm"> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/eppp-archive/100/205/301/ic/cdc/simcoeregion/index.htm</span></a><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">. Accessed May 31, 2017. </span></p><p> <span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">White, Richard. <em>The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes </em> <em>Region, 1650-1815</em>. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. </span></p><p> <span style="text-decoration:underline;"> <span aria-hidden="true"></span>Images</span>: </p><p>Images on this page marked as public domain are free to re-use. If you do re-use public domain images, please credit the Simcoe County Archives as the source and link back to this page.<span aria-hidden="true"></span></p><p>Note:</p><p>June 15, 2020. The citation for the Chippewas of Rama First Nation's website is correct for when the site was accessed May 31, 2017.  The URL has changed since then, however, and the broken link to the website has been repaired.  The website can be accessed at <a href="http://www.mnjikaning.ca/Pages/home.aspx">http://www.mnjikaning.ca/Pages/home.aspx</a>​<br></p>
National Indigenous Peoples Dayhttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/National_Indigenous_Peoples_Day_2020.aspx5/21/2020 7:50:29 PMNational Indigenous Peoples Day<p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">​​​​​​​​​Blog originally posted June 17, 2020<br>Updated: 2021-06-09</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span><span style="font-size:1em;">J</span><span style="font-size:1em;">une is National Indigenous History Month in Canada, and June 21 is National Indigenous Peoples ​Day.  It is "</span><span style="font-size:1em;">... a day for all Canadians to recognize and celebrate the unique heritage, diverse cultures and outstanding contributions of First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples."<sup>1</sup>​​​</span></p><h3>Jacob Gill Gaudaur (1858-1937)<br></h3><p></p><p>Did you know that Jake Gaudaur, five-time World Champion rower, was the great-grandson of Big Shilling, Chief of the Deer Tribe in Rama?</p><p>Jacob “Jake" Gill Gaudaur (1858-1937) was born in Atherley, Ontario, the son of Francis and Janet (Gill) Gaudaur.  His paternal grandfather was Antoine Gaudaur, the first-known non-native permanent settler in Orillia.  Gaudaur's paternal grandmother was Mary (Shilling) Gaudaur, dau​ghter of Chief Big Shilling (Neb-Non-A-Quet “Summer Cloud"), chief of the Deer Tribe in Rama, under Chief Yellowhead.<br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/970-63%20Jacob%20Gill%20Gaudaur-1080.jpg" title="Jacob Gill Gaudaur"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/970-63%20Jacob%20Gill%20Gaudaur-480.jpg" alt="Jacob Gill Gaudaur" class="ms-rtePosition-5" style="margin:5px 55px;width:515px;height:372px;" /></a><span style="font-size:0.714em;">970-63 ​ ​Jacob Gill </span><span style="font-size:0.714em;">Ga</span><span style="font-size:0.714em;">udaur.  Copyright: Public Domain</span><br></p><p>Jake Gaudaur took up competitive rowing at the age of 17, and was one of the greatest scullers in the history of Canadian rowing.  During the 1890s especially, he was nearly unbeatable.  In 1892, Gaudaur and George Hosmer won the World Double Sculls Championship in a race held on Lake Couchiching.  A year later, in Austin, Texas, Gaudaur set a world record for the single sculls three-miles-with-a-turn race.  He lowered the record the next year in a time of 19 minutes 1.5 seconds, a time that has never been beaten.  Gaudaur became the single sculls world champion in a race held on the Thames River in England, and he held the title from 1896 to 1901.  During the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations held at Orillia on May 24, 1897, Gaudaur had no trouble beating Erastus Rogers of Worcester, Massachusetts, in a two-mile race for the North American championship.</p><p>After 25 years of competitive rowing, Gaudaur retired and returned to his hometown of Orillia.  He operated a fishing and boat livery business until just a few months before his death.  <br></p><h4>Citation:<br></h4><p>1. Government of Canada. Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. "About National Indigenous Peoples Day." Last modified May 21, 2020.  Accessed May 29, 2020. <span style="font-size:1em;"> </span><a href="https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100013718/1534874583157" style="font-size:1em;">https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1100100013718/1534874583157</a><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><h4>Sources consulted:</h4><p>Northern Advance (Barrie), 14 Oct 1937, p. 6</p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">Examiner (Barri</span><span style="font-size:1em;">e), 14 Oct 1937, p. 5</span></p><p>Examiner (Barrie), 27 May 1897, p. 1</p><p>“Hall of Famer Jake, Sr. Gaudaur." Canada's Sports Hall of Fame.  <a href="https://www.sportshall.ca/hall-of-famers/hall-of-famers-search.html?proID=190&catID=all&lang=EN">https://www.sportshall.ca/hall-of-famers/hall-of-famers-search.html?proID=190&catID=all&lang=EN</a>  Accessed June 1, 2020</p><p>“Jake" Gaudaur 1858-1937.  <a href="https://www.heritagetrust.on.ca/en/pages/our-stories/exhibits/snapshots-of-ontarios-sport-heritage/sports-personalities-traditions-and-key-events/jake-gaudaur" target="_blank">Ontario Heritage Trust plaque</a>. Accessed June 2, 2020.​<br></p><h4>Further reading:<br></h4><span style="font-size:1em;"><div><span style="font-size:1em;"><br></span></div>​T</span><span style="font-size:1em;">he Chippewas of Rama First Nation Historica</span><span style="font-size:1em;">l Archives has information about the Shilling Family available on its website.​​</span><a href="https://ramafirstnation.pastperfectonline.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_criteria=Shilling&searchButton=Search" style="font-size:1em;">https://ramafirstnation.pastperfectonline.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_criteria=Shilling&searchButton=Search</a><br><div><span style="font-size:1em;">​​<br></span></div><div><span style="font-size:1em;">​The S</span><span style="font-size:1em;">imcoe County Archives' blog post commemorating National Indigenous History Month 2017.</span></div><div><a href="/Archives/Pages/Blog/National-Indigenous-History-Month.aspx" style="font-size:1em;">https://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/National-Indigenous-History-Month.aspx</a><br></div>
Emancipation Day 2020https://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Emancipation_Day_2020.aspx6/23/2020 5:42:28 PMEmancipation Day 2020<p><span class="ms-rteStyle-Quote"><span style="color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:11.424px;">​​​Blog originally posted July 30​​, 2020</span>​​​<br></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteStyle-Quote">​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​August 1st is Emancipation Day, the day on which Ontario ​recognizes ​the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. Many runaway and freed Black </span><span style="font-style:italic;font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-style:italic;font-size:1em;">s​la</span><span style="font-style:italic;font-size:1em;">ves se​ttled in Simcoe and Grey Counties in the 1800s. One of them was Abraham Courtney (ca. 1821-1897), an escaped slave from the United States who arrived in Owen Sound about 1860. He ma​​rried Caroline Parker (ca. 1842-1891) and raised a family that included a son who moved to Simcoe County and served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War.​​​</span></p><h2 style="text-align:center;">A Portrait of a Black Sold​ier who served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force:  Private Jacob Courtney​​<br></h2><p><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2008-126-Jacob_Courtney_1916-B1R0BS3Sh1-edit-1080.jpg" title="Portrait of Jacob Courtney"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2008-126-Jacob_Courtney_1916-B1R0BS3Sh1-edit-480.jpg" alt="Portrait of Jacob Courtney" class="ms-rtePosition-4" style="margin:5px 170px;width:293px;" /></a> <br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">2008-126 Portrait of Jacob Courtney, "A" Company, 157th Battalion, CEF.  Public Domain</span> ​</p><p>​Jacob Courtney (1880-1957) was living in the village of Sunnidale by the spring of 1911. On February 15​​, 1916, he enlisted with the 157th Overseas ​​Battalion, CEF, known​ locally as the “Simcoe Foresters Battalion." <br></p><p>Along with many other resid​ents of west Simcoe County, Jacob Courtney was assigned to the 157th Battalion's “A" Company. A composite photograph of “A" Company and Bugle Band, dated May 1, 1916, contains 252 individual portraits. Courtney's portrait is located in the top row, 6th from the left, along with the other members of the Rear Rank of No. 4 Platoon.  </p><p>​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2008-126%20A%20Coy%20and%20Bugle%20Band%20157TH%20Simcoe%20Foresters%2001%20May%201916%20photos%20and%20ID-1080.jpg" title="Composite photograh of "A" Company, 157th Bn. CEF"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2008-126%20A%20Coy%20and%20Bugle%20Band%20157TH%20Simcoe%20Foresters%2001%20May%201916%20photos%20and%20ID-480.jpg" alt="Composite photograh of "A" Company, 157th Bn. CEF" style="margin:5px 75px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">2008-126 "A" Company and Bugle Band, 157th Simcoe Foresters O.S. Battalion, C.E.F., May F​irst, Ninteteen Hundred and Sixteen.  Public Domain.</span><br></p><p>The 157th Battalion was broken up in England and Courtney served with several other CEF units, including the 4th Battalion, and saw action in France. In April 1919, Jacob Courtney was discharged from service in the CEF “by reason of demobilization," sailed from Southampton, England to Halifax, Nova Scotia aboard the Olympic, and from there continued home to Sunnidale Township. ​<br></p><h4>Notes on sources used:<br></h4><p>​Jacob Courtney's <a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-world-war/personnel-records/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=120697" title="Link to Jacob Courtney's Service File">Service File</a>, which contains official information about his military service (Regimental ​Number 642637), is available on Library and Archives Canada's website.<br></p><p>Information about Abraham Courtney and Caroline Parker was gleaned from census returns and available Ontario vital statistics records for themselves and for their children.<br></p><p><a href="https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/Pages/census.aspx" title="Link to Canadian Census returns">Canadian census return​s</a> are also available on Library and Archives Canada's website.<br></p><p><a href="http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/tracing/vsmain.aspx">Ontario Vital Statistics</a> records are available at the Archives of Ontario, as well as through paid subscriptions to Ancestry​.<br></p><p>Additional information about Abraham Courtney was found in the transcription of an interview with Blaine Courtney, a great-grandson, conducted by Dr. Naomi Norquay. <br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">​“Believe It or Not, I Actually Enjoy It": An Interview with Blaine Courtney.  </span><a href="https://greyroots.com/sites/default/files/naomi_norquay_blaine_courtney_interview_2015.pdf" style="font-size:1em;">https://greyroots.com/sites/default/files/naomi_norquay_blaine_courtney_interview_2015.pdf</a><span style="font-size:1em;">  </span><span style="font-size:1em;">Accessed June 29, 2020</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span>​<br></p><p>The 157th Battalion, CEF<span style="font-size:1em;">, was raised by the 35th ​Regiment, Simcoe Foresters, which was the local militia unit.  Both are perpetuated by the </span>Grey and Simcoe Foresters Infantry Regiment<span style="font-size:1em;"> ​of the Canadian Forces Reserve. ​​ The </span><span style="font-size:1em;">Grey and Simcoe Foresters Re</span><span style="font-size:1em;">g</span><span style="font-size:1em;">imental Mu</span><span style="font-size:1em;">seum </span><span style="font-size:1em;">is located at 36 Mulcaster St. in downtown Barrie.</span></p><h4>See also:<br></h4><p>​The Simcoe County Archives' online exhibit, <a href="/Archives/Pages/black.aspx">The Black Settlement in Oro Township​</a>.<br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">The Simcoe County Archives' <a href="/Archives/Pages/Blog/Emancipation-Day.aspx">Emancipation Day 2017</a> blog post.​</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Blog updated 2021-01-13:  Accession numbers for the individual and composite images were corrected.</span></p>
For Home and Country: Exploring Women’s Institute records at the Simcoe County Archiveshttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Simcoe-County-Women-Institutes.aspx8/30/2021 2:18:51 PMFor Home and Country: Exploring Women’s Institute records at the Simcoe County Archives<h2>​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Introduction<br></h2><p>The Women's Institute (WI) formed in Ontario in 1897 as a women-focused offshoot of the Farmers' Institutes. The Department of Agriculture of Ontario initially sponsored both programs, with the expressed purpose of the WI being the promotion of home economy and practical education for rural women. In practice, local WI branches served as non-denominational social clubs where women could gather with friends, learn, and organize. </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/TR-2005-87_EastSimDist_TWD_1964-77_Page_052.jpg" title="Mrs. J. Wiggins and Mrs. A McDermid, the first Secretary and Director of the Severn Bridge Women's Institute"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/TR-2005-87_EastSimDist_TWD_1964-77_Page_052_400.jpg" alt="Mrs. J. Wiggins and Mrs. A McDermid, the first Secretary and Director of the Severn Bridge Women's Institute" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;"> TR-2005-87     ​Mrs. J. Wiggins and Mrs. A. McDermid, the first Secretary and Director of the Severn Bridge WI, East Simcoe District WI Tweedsmuir History, pg. 52​<br></span><br></p><p>​<span style="font-size:1em;">W</span><span style="font-size:1em;">omen's Institute branches have been active in Simcoe County since the early 1900s. They have had a well-documented, very important role in local heritage preservation. In 1928, Simcoe Area Director Agnes Stocking (Waub​uashene WI) and Area Secretary Elizabeth Sutherland (Stroud WI) petitioned the Public Library in Barrie for a small space in which to house a Simcoe County Museum. ​​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;">​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_027.jpg" title="Agnes Stocking, First Director of the Simcoe Area Women's Institute"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_027_480.jpg" alt="Agnes​​​ Stocking, 1944" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;">971-15   Agnes​​​ Stocking, 1944,  Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir Vol. 11925-71, pg. 27<br></h4><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_800.jpg" alt="Elizabeth Sutherland, Simcoe Area Women's Institute Secretary" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><h4 style="font-size:16px;text-align:center;">971-15   <span></span>Elizabeth Sutherland, undated<br>  Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir Vol. 1, 1925-71, pg. 28<br></h4><p><span style="font-size:1em;">As the collection grew, the Simcoe County Museum was relocated first to the Registry Office in Barrie in the 1930s and then to its permanent home on Highway 26. The local branches were likewise instrumental in the establishment of a county-level archives. It was through their efforts and dedication that the </span><span style="font-size:1em;">Simcoe County Archives was founded in 1966 as a County Centennial Project. Through their continued support, the Simcoe County Archives was also able to start an in-house microfilming program. </span><br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/984-103%20Simcoe%20County%20Womens%20Institute%20Museum_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/984-103%20Simcoe%20County%20Womens%20Institute%20Museum_800.jpg" alt="Simcoe County Women's Institute Museum, ca. 1934" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /></a> ​984-103    Simcoe County Women's Institute Museum, ca. 1934<br></h4><p>​<br></p><p><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCM-1967_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCM%20f-1967_800.jpg" alt="Simcoe County Museum and Archives, ca. 1970" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;">Simcoe County Museum and Archives, ca. 1970 </h4><h4 style="text-align:center;">from the Simcoe County Archives Photograph collection<br></h4><p>​Another major project undertaken by WI branches has been the creation of community history books, known as Tweedsmuir Community History Books (or Tweedsmuir Histories). The women of the WI created these records to document the settlement history of their towns, but the books also serve to illustrate the social history of their communities throughout the twentieth century. They provide an incredible amount of information for historians, genealogists, and researchers. <br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SimcoeArea_TWD_1925-71_Page_001.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /><br></p><h4 style="font-size:16px;text-align:center;">971-15​ Decorative cover of a Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir<br><br></h4><p>The Simcoe County Archives has been the main repository for local Women's Institute records for over 50 years. The Archives hold branch minutes and administrative records as well over 200 Tweedsmuir Histories and branch scrapbooks​. This blog post will explore the history of the Women's Institute in Simcoe County, with an emphasis on the role of the branches in the collection and preservation of local histories.<br></p><h2>​A Brief History of Federated Women's Institute in Ontario (FWIO)</h2><p>The establishment of the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario is credited to <a href="https://fwio.on.ca/history/">Adelaide Hunter Hoodless and Erland and Janet Lee</a>. Adelaide Hoodless, born in Brant County in 1857, was a tireless educational reformer. Her passion was for the education of women, specifically in the areas of domestic work, health and sanitation, and household labour. </p><p>An address given by Mrs. Hoodless at the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph on the subject of educational programing for rural women caught the attention of Erland Lee, a member of the South Wentworth Farmers' Institute, and his wife Janet. Together, the three endeavoured to establish a “Women's Department of Home Economy in affiliation with the Farmers' Institute". The organization would eventually come to be named the Women's Institute and its official constitution was adopted in Stoney Creek, Ontario on February 25, 1897.</p><p>Within the first ten years of the WI's existence in Ontario, it was reported that 400 local branches had been founded across the province. These local Women's Institutes came to be organized under the umbrella of the FWIO by Areas, Districts, and Branches. ​</p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/East-District.jpg" title="​East Simcoe District WI members meeting in Orillia around1910"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/East-District-480.jpg" alt="​East Simcoe District WI members meeting in Orillia, around 1910" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;">TR-2005-87     East Simcoe District WI members meeting in Orillia, ca. 1910</h4><h4 style="text-align:center;">East Simcoe District WI Tweedsmuir History, pg. ​9<br></h4><p style="text-align:center;"></p><h2>The Women's Institute in Simcoe County</h2><p>As a county largely comprised of rural communities, it is no surprise that the WI took root in Simcoe County. Over the course of the WI's history in the county, there have been over 130 individual branches established. While many of these have since disbanded or amalgamated, records for many of the individual branches survive and have been deposited at the Simcoe County Archives.<br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/West-District.jpg" title="West District WI members meeting near New Lowell, around 1919"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/West-District-480.jpg" alt="West District WI members meeting near New Lowell, around 1919 " style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;">980-38  West District WI members meeting near New Lowell, ca. 1920<br></h4><h4 style="text-align:center;">West Simcoe District WI Tweedsmuir Vol. 1, pg.18<br></h4><p>​​​​Some of the earliest WI branches to form were in Wyebridge (1901), Cookstown (Sr Branch, 1901), Bond Head (1902), and Creemore (1902). Women's Institute districts formed relatively early to represent the growing number of branches in different parts of the County. The original four districts were:<br></p><ul><li>Simcoe South District, formed in 1901</li><li>Simcoe Centre District, formed in 1902</li><li>Simcoe West District, formed in1902</li><li>Simcoe East District, formed in 1910<br></li></ul><p>Subsequent districts later formed and various reorganizations took place. The Simcoe North District formed in 1949 and the Simcoe Kempenfeldt District was created in 1966. The former took on some existing branches located in the north end of the County, while the latter absorbed various branches from the Simcoe South and Simcoe East Districts. <br></p><p>Today, Simcoe County's WI are again organized into four districts: </p><ul><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/find-a-branch/?widistrict=Simcoe+Centre-West" title="Simcoe Centre-West District WI">Simcoe Centre-West</a><br></li><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/find-a-branch/?widistrict=Simcoe+East" title="Simcoe East District WI">Simcoe East</a></li><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/find-a-branch/?widistrict=Simcoe+North" title="Simcoe North District WI">Simcoe North</a><br></li><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/find-a-branch/?widistrict=Simcoe+South+Kempenfeldt" title="Simcoe South Kempenfeldt District WI">Simcoe South Kempenfeldt</a><br></li></ul><p>A major development in the history of Simcoe County's Women's Institutes took place in 1925, when the <a href="https://fwio.on.ca/find-a-branch/?wiarea=Simcoe" title="Simcoe Area WI">Simcoe Area</a> was formed. </p><p>​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_157_1080.jpg" title=" Simcoe Area WI Officers, 1944"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_157_800.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span style="font-weight:bold;text-align:center;">​971-15   Simcoe Area WI Officers, 1944<br></span><span style="font-weight:bold;">Simcoe Area Tweedsmuir WI Vol. 1, 1925-71, pg. 157​</span></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">​This area-level organization would work to represent the shared interests and objectives of all WI branches within the County of Simcoe.  The matter was put forward at a general meeting of the four districts, which took place on August 5, 1925. At that time Agnes Stocking was selected as the first Director.</span><br></p><p>The first meeting of the Simcoe Area was held in Barrie at the Public Library on July 7, 1926. At that time two committees were formed. The first was to take a general survey of material mortality and general health conditions within the County. The second was a historical research committee formed with the expressed mandate of “preserving the history of our County" (Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir Vol. 1, pg. 10). ​<br></p><h4 style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_1925-71_Page_018_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_1925-71_Page_018_480.jpg" alt="A Letter from Mrs. W. H. Todd, Convener of the Committee on “Pioneer Research", to Mrs. Orchard, October 15, 1926 ​" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><br></h4><h4 style="text-align:center;">971-15  A Letter from Mrs. W. H. Todd, Convener of the Committee on<br>“Pioneer Research", to Mrs. Orchard, October 15, 1926 ​<br></h4><h4 style="text-align:center;"> Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir, 1925-71, pg. 18​</h4><p>The above letter, written by the Simcoe Area Convention's first Convener of the Committee on “Pioneer Research" Mrs. W.H. Todd, gives a strong indication of the type of historical information that was of interest to local women of the WI. Though the practice of compiling and keeping Tweedsmuir Histories would not officially begin until the 1930s, the activities of this committee can be considered a blueprint for the Tweedsmuir Histories.<br></p><h2>​Tweedsmuir Histories<br></h2><p>One of the WI's most significant contributions to preserving county history has been the creation of community history records, known as Tweedsmuir Histories.  The object of the Tweedsmuirs is to document local history and ensure its availability for future generations. <br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Tweedsmuir%20Cover%20cropped.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" />​</p><h4 style="text-align:center;">The FWIO logo and motto embossed on a Tweedsmuir History<br></h4><p style="text-align:left;"><span style="font-size:1em;">By the mid-1920s, WI members were already undertaking efforts to record local settler history, however it was in the 1930s-1940s that the books became a central focus of the WI. The name “Tweedsmuir Histories" was adopted around that time. The name was inspired by Lady Tweedsmuir​, the wife of the Governor General of Canada​. She had taken a personal interest in the endeavours of Canada's WI and stressed the need to preserve local history. Compiling “village histories" was a common practice for WI branches in England, and it was readily adopted in Canada.</span></p><p style="text-align:center;">​<a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_1925-71_Page_020_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_1925-71_Page_020_480.jpg" alt="A letter addressed to Mrs. Robert Boyes (Churchill WI) from Lady Tweedsmuir, dated October 15, 1940" style="margin:5px;" /></a> <br></p><h4 style="font-size:16px;text-align:center;">971-15​     A letter addressed to Mrs. Robert Boyes (Churchill WI)  from Lady Tweedsmuir, dated October 15, 1940,  Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir, 1925-71, pg. 20<span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></h4><p style="text-align:left;"><br><span style="font-size:1em;">The project gained momentum as the 50th anniversary for the WI in Ontario approached, with many branches completing the first books in time for the 1947 celebrations. The first Area Tweedsmuir “Curator" for Simcoe County was Mrs. Robert Kell of the Gilford WI (1963-1968). Many Tweedsmuir Histories were also completed in time for Canada's Centennial in 1967. </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/TR-2005-87_EastSimDist_TWD_1964-77_Page_097_1000.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/TR-2005-87_EastSimDist_TWD_1964-77_Page_097_1000.jpg" alt="Tweedsmuir History Workshop being held at Minesing for the Districts of Simcoe Centre, North and East on April 26th 1967" style="margin:5px;" /></a><span style="font-weight:bold;">TR-2005-87     ​East Simcoe District WI Tweedsmuir History, pg. 97​</span></p><p>​Tweedsmuir Histories exist in a variety of forms, but the majority are organized into albums or scrapbooks. Many are bound in the official blue and gold colours of the WI, but others have decorative leather or painted covers. While each Tweedsmuir is fundamentally a unique record of its community, many follow a similar format for the collection and presentation of historical information. Some frequently included categories are:<br></p><ul><li>Branch histories<br></li><li>Membership profiles and biographies</li><li>Settlement and community profiles</li><li>Local anniversaries and special events</li><li>Local fundraisers, including war efforts</li><li>Industrial and agricultural practices<br></li><li>Local family histories</li><li>Farm histories and "House Logs"<br></li><li>Public building histories, including churches and schools</li><li>Profiles of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Robertson_Watt" title="Biography of Mrs. Alfred Watt">Mrs. Alfred Watt </a>Memorial Scholarship winners<br></li></ul><div>While the original focus of these records was on the early settler history, the books offer a wealth of information about the social history of Simcoe County throughout the twentieth century. <br></div><div><br></div><div><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/993-19_Udney_WI_Tweedsmuir-Scrapbook-Martin-Speiran_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/993-19_Udney_WI_Tweedsmuir-Scrapbook-Martin-Speiran_800.jpg" alt="A Century Farm, or "Farm History" included in the Udney WI Tweedsmuir, ca. 1970" style="margin:5px;" /></a>​<br></div><div><h4 style="text-align:center;">​993-19     A Century Farm, or "Farm History" included in the Udney WI Tweedsmuir, ca. 1970. From the Udney WI fonds​<br><br></h4><p><span style="font-size:1em;">The Simcoe County Archives holds over 200 Tweedsmuir Histories and scrapbooks created by the County's Area, Districts, and Branches. </span><span style="font-size:1em;">A working list of all the Tweedsmuir Histories held at the Simcoe County Archives is avail​able for review: </span><a href="/Archives/Documents/SCA_WI-Tweedsmuirs_PUBLIC.xlsx" title="Link to the Simcoe County Archives Tweedsmuir History Inventory" target="_blank"><span style="font-size:1em;">SCA Twee</span><span style="font-size:1em;">dsmuir History</span><span style="font-size:1em;"> Inventory</span></a>​<br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;"></span><span style="font-size:1em;">The prevalence of the WI in the county has meant that the Tweedsmuirs provide wide geographic coverage.</span><span style="font-size:1em;"> This combined with the sheer variety of local history captured collectively make the Tweedsmuirs one of the Archives most important resources.  </span></p><p><br></p><p><strong style="font-size:1em;">​Conclusion</strong></p><p><strong style="font-size:1em;"></strong>The WI has played a major role in the collection and preservation of local heritage materials in the County of Simcoe.  Through the curation of Tweedsmuir Histories and the establishment of local heritage organizations, the women of the WI not only recorded Simcoe County's local history, but also ensured that it would be kept and made available to all citizens in perpetuity. </p><p>With the assistance of the FWIO, forty of Simcoe County's Area and District WI Tweedsmuir Histories were digitized in 2019.  These can be accessed through​ the <a href="https://collections.fwio.on.ca/search">FWIO Digital Collections​</a>. <br><br><br></p><p><strong>Sources:</strong><br></p><p>Ambrose, Linda M., and Margaret Kechnie. “Social Control or Social Feminism?: Two Views of the Ontario Women's Institutes." <em>Agricultural History</em> 73, no. 2 (1999): 222–37. <a href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3744661">http://www.jstor.org/stable/3744661</a>.</p><p>Kechine, Margaret C. <em>Organizing Rural Women: The Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario, 1897-1919</em>. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003. <a href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zwfj">http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zwfj</a>.</p><p>Tennant, Nancy. “Women's Institutes in Peace and War." <em>Social Work (1939-1970)</em> 2, no. 3 (1942): 99–104. <a href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/43759704">http://www.jstor.org/stable/43759704</a>.</p><p>The Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario.<em> Ontario Women's Institute Story</em>. T. H Best Printing Limited, 1972.</p><p> “Tweedsmuir Community History Books." <em>The Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario</em>. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://fwio.on.ca/tweedsmuir-history-books/​ <br></p><p> </p><p><strong>Further Reading:</strong><br></p><ul><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/fwio-digital-collections/" title="Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario – Digital Collections">Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario – Digital Collections</a></li><li><a href="https://fwio.on.ca/erland-lee-museum-home/" title="Erland Lee (Museum) Home​" style="font-size:1em;">Erland Lee (Museum) Home​</a><br></li><li><a href="/Archives/Pages/Madge-Watt.aspx" title="Link to blog post on Margaret Madge Robertson Watt">Margaret "Madge" Robertson Watt​</a><br></li></ul><p><br><br></p>​<br><br><br></div>
Archives Awareness Week 2022https://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Archives-Awareness-Week-2022.aspx3/24/2022 12:32:15 AMArchives Awareness Week 2022<p style="text-align:left;">​​<span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">​​April 2 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">– 8 is Archives Awareness Week in Ontario. In keeping with this year’s theme “Behind the Scenes” </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">the SCA is highlighting some of the tools and equipment we use every day to keep the Archives running. As the weather is warming up and we are finally pulling out of the grey days of winter, we thought we would incorporate a little </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2 SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">colour</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW113350593 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> in our list. Enjoy!  </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW113350593 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;white-space:pre-wrap;margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW173585303 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Red: High-density Mobile Shelving</span><span class="EOP SCXW173585303 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br>​​​​<img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Red.JPG" alt="High density rolled storage shelving at the Simcoe County Archives" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="margin:5px;" />​</p><p style="text-align:justify;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Archives has </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2 SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">a number of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> purpose-built high-density</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> mobile </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">shelving units in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">its </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">vaults. These </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">shelves </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">are</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">mounted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> on a </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">carriage and rail system</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">E</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ssentially,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> they roll on tracks </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">making</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">it possible to fit </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">more shelving units </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2 SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">in a given</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> space. The shelves </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">are rolled</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> manu</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ally using the levers pictured. They </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">can also be locked</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> in place to ensure stability (this is especially important when staff are working in the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">aisles</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173398293 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">).</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW173398293 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW53397624 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">​Orange: The Wave-60 Work Assist Vehicle</span><span class="EOP SCXW53397624 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Orange.JPG" alt="The Wave 60 work assist vehicle" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /><span style="font-size:1em;"> </span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">At the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">Archives</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> we move a lot of boxes! </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">The Wave-60 Work Assist Vehicle makes it possible for Archives staff to store and retrieve boxes from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">the highest levels of our mobile shelving units</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">. The Wave-60 weighs over </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">2</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> tons, has a load capacity of 450lbs, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">can extend to a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> height </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> 13 ft.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> Archives staff </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;">are certified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW204216651 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-size:14.6667px;white-space:pre-wrap;"> annually to operate the Wave-60.</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW97493723 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Yellow: No. 2 Pencils</span><span class="EOP SCXW97493723 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span>​<br>​<img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Yellow.JPG" alt="Yellow pencils" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">If you know one thing about visiting the Archives, it is probably </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">that pens aren’t allowed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">! Ink poses a risk of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">permanently</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> damaging archival records. For this reason, only pencils are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">permited for</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW11363305 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> both staff and researchers.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW11363305 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW145957933 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Green: Plastic paperclips</span><span class="EOP SCXW145957933 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;">  </span><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Green.JPG" alt="Archival plastic paperclips" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /><span style="font-size:1em;"> </span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span style="font-size:1em;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Over time, metal staples and paperclips inevitably rust and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">can </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">end up damaging the documents they are affixed to. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Plastic paperclips are frequently used in Archives as a solution to this problem. Plastic paperclips are also a lot gentler on paper</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> in the long term</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW223523665 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, preventing rips and tears.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW223523665 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span>​<br></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW29116795 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">​Blue: Nitrile gloves</span><span class="EOP SCXW29116795 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Blue.JPG" alt="Blue nitrile gloves used to handle archival records" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="margin:5px;" /> <br></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">Nitrile gloves are frequently used by Archives staff when handling delicate records</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">. They protect the records from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">any </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">oils </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">or </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">dirt present on </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2 SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">hands</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> and fingers. Though not mandatory for handling all paper-based records, they are required for photographic materials. The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">chemical</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> processes</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">used </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">to develop photographs are especially susceptible </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW114002823 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">degradation from finger oils. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW114002823 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"></p><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"><span class="EOP SCXW84835804 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span></p></div><div class="OutlineElement Ltr SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;overflow:visible;cursor:text;clear:both;direction:ltr;color:#000000;font-family:"segoe ui", "segoe ui web", arial, verdana, sans-serif;font-size:12px;text-align:left;"><p class="Paragraph SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Indigo: “The Map Cart” </span><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Indigo.JPG" alt="The map cart" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="color:#444444;font-family:"droid sans", sans-serif;font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /><span style="color:#444444;font-family:"droid sans", sans-serif;font-size:1em;"> </span></p><p class="Paragraph SCXW84835804 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;white-space:pre-wrap;vertical-align:baseline;background-color:transparent;color:windowtext;"><span style="color:#444444;font-family:"droid sans", sans-serif;font-size:1em;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">The Map Cart is a purpose-built cart used to transport large format records without putting und</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ue</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">train on them. The cart’s curved </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">form supports </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">the records, protecting them from being </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">b</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ent</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> or torn. It </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">has been dubbed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW266664473 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> “The Map Cart” by staff, because that is primarily what it is used for – our extensive collection of cartographic materials. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW266664473 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span> </span></p></div><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW84048149 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;font-weight:bold;">Violet: pH Pen</span><span class="EOP SCXW84048149 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SCA_Violet.JPG" alt="Abbey pH pen" class="ms-rteImage-1" style="margin:5px;" /><br></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="TextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">A pH pen is a standard in an Archivist’s conservation tool kit. The ink in these pens </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">is used</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> to determine the acidity of paper. If the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ink</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> shows up as </span></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" class="TextRun Highlight SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;outline:transparent solid 1px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">purple</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">, it indicates a pH of 7.0 or above. Y</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ellow </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">ink suggests a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> pH below 6.5. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">A rule of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">thumb</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> is that paper needs an</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> alkaline reserve and a pH of 7.0 or higher </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2 SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;">in order</span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2 SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:left bottom;"> to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> last for a hundred years or more. Archives staff typically use these pens to figure out if a given envelope or enclosure is appropriate for storing archival materials. It </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;">can also be used</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW51153225 BCX9" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;"> to determine the storage needs of different records.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW51153225 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="EOP SCXW51153225 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><br></span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="EOP SCXW51153225 BCX9" data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;color:#000000;white-space:pre-wrap;font-size:11pt;line-height:17.2667px;font-family:arial, arial_embeddedfont, arial_msfontservice, sans-serif;"><br></span></p>
Margaret "Madge" Roberston Watthttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Madge-Watt.aspx2/24/2022 7:28:14 PMMargaret "Madge" Roberston Watt<p>​​​​​​​March 8, 2022 marks  International Women's Day! <br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">​O</span><span style="font-size:1em;">f the many remarkable women who have called Simcoe County home, there is perhaps none more appropriate to recognize for International Women’s Day than Margaret “Madge” (Robert​son) Watt. Born and raised in Collingwood, Ontario, Madge went on to lead an extraordinary life – one that was motivated by a determination to educate and empower women both in Canada and abroad. ​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/SC_Archives-Margaret_Robertson_Watt.jpg" title="Margaret Robertson Madge Watt in 1918" style="color:#000000;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/SC_Archives-Margaret_Robertson_Watt_480.jpg" alt="Margaret Robertson Madge Watt in 1918" class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"><strong>Margaret Robertson “Madge” Watt, ca. 1918</strong></span><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;">  </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"><strong>Source: Public Domain</strong></span><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"> </span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><p> Margaret Rose Robertson was born on June 4, 1868 to Henry Robertson Q.C. (1840-1923) and Bethia Rose Robertson (1844-1893). She was the eldest of two daughters, and both of her parents were actively engaged in community work. This ethos of community service would be one that Madge adopted in her own life. </p><p>Madge was a talented student, and began her studies at the University of Toronto in 1887. She graduated with a Master of Arts degree in 1891. With strong communication skills and a dynamic personality, Madge found early success as a writer and editor. Following the completion of her studies, she moved to New York City and served as editor of the popular magazine Ladies Weekly. Her time in New York was cut short, however, when her mother took ill. Madge returned to Collingwood in 1893 and, after the death of her mother, she married Dr. Alfred Tennyson Watt (1868-1913).  ​<br></p><p>The Watts relocated to just outside of Victoria, British Columbia, where Dr. Watt served as the Medical Health Officer and Superintendent of William Head Quarantine Station. It was at this point, as she adapted to a more rural lifestyle, that Madge’s involvement with the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Institute" title="The Women's Institute">Women’s Institute​</a> (WI) began in earnest. She was an early adopter of the movement and was a founding member of the <a href="https://www.bcwi.ca/blog/madge-watt-and-metchosin" title="Madge Watt and Metchosin" target="_blank">Metchosin Women's Institute​</a>. She also served as secretary of the Women's Institute Advisory Board for British Columbia.  <br><span style="font-size:1em;">​<br>Following the death of her husband in 1913, Madge and her two sons left British Columbia for England. With the onset of the First World War in 1914, Madge recognized the benefits organized, rural women could bring to the war effort. She successfully established a Women’s Institute presence in the United Kingdom (UK). She imparted many of the tenets and practices established in Canadian Women’s Institute branches to these new members. Under Madge’s direction, the WI’s played a key role in wartime agricultural production. Through their efforts food production and distribution was optimized to such a degree that it surpassed England’s supply requirements.  In 1919 Madge was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire for her role in establishing the WI in the UK. </span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/ACWW%20(1).jpg" alt="Associated Country Women of the World logo" class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="font-size:1em;margin:5px;" /><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><strong style="font-size:1em;">The Associated County Women of the World logo</strong><span style="font-size:1em;"><br></span></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">Throughout the 1920s Madge continued to advocate for the Women’s Institute and, more generally, for the sustained empowerment and organization of rural women within their communities. Through her work with the International Council of Women, she became one of the founding members of the <a href="http://www.acww.org.uk/" title="ssociated Country Women of the World">Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW)</a>. Established in 1933, the ACWW is an international, non-governmental organization, which works to coordinate and represent the interests of women-led member institutions. In a speech given at an international conference of rural women held in 1930, Madge Watt was quoted as giving the following statement: </span><br></p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;"> “Country women have begun to realize that their best contribution to the welfare of their families and their countries is not to stagger on under burdens too great for their strength, which result in invalidism and premature death; but, through co-operation with one another, to secure that due care for their health as mothers which is their right, and those reasonable opportunities for education and recreation, and development of their talents, which every human being should be able to claim.​”</span><div><p style="text-align:right;"><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Madge Watt, 1930</span> <br><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;">Source: ​<a href="https://www.acww.org.uk/our_history.html" title="History of the ACWW​ ">History of the ACWW​</a></span><span style="font-size:1em;"> </span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA"></span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335551550":3,"335551620":3,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;">Madge Watt served as the President of the ACWW until 1947, when t</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US" style="font-size:1em;">he ACWW was granted </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;">Consultative Status with the United Nations. Through its work with the United Nations, the </span><span data-contrast="none" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;">Food & Agriculture Organization, and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)</span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA" style="font-size:1em;"> the ACWW continues to empower women and support women-led initiatives throughout the world today. </span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="font-size:1em;">​ ​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}" style="font-size:1em;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_157_1080.jpg" title="Simcoe Area WI Officers including Madge Watt, 1944" style="color:#000000;"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/971-15_SimcoeArea_TWD_Vol1_1925-71_Page_157_800.jpg" alt="Simcoe Area WI Officers including Madge Watt, 1944" class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1" style="margin:5px;" /></a><span style="font-size:1em;"> ​971-15   Simcoe Area WI Officers, 1944​<br></span></span><span style="font-size:1em;">Simcoe Area Tweedsmuir WI Vol. 1, 1925-7</span><span style="font-size:1em;">1, pg. 157​</span></p></div><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">Throughout her life, Madge Watt maintained a connection to Simcoe County Women’s Institutes, speaking at a number of Area Conferences. The Mrs. Alfred Watt Memorial Women’s Institute was founded in 1953 near Collingwood, and was named in her honour.</span></p><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">Madge Watt died on November 29, 1948, in Montreal, Quebec. She was 80 years old. In 2007 she was designated a <a href="https://www.pc.gc.ca/apps/dfhd/page_nhs_eng.aspx?id=11470" title="Madge Watt Person of Historical Significance designation ">Person of Historical Significance​</a> by the Canadian Government. A plaque commemorating the designation was installed in </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-CA">Colwood​​, British Columbia in 2015. </span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> </span><br></p><p><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"><br></span></p><div><p><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US">To learn more about the <a href="https://fwio.on.ca/" title="Frederated Women’s Institutes of Ontario">Women’s Institute ​</a>in Simcoe County, check out our post </span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"><a href="/Archives/Pages/Simcoe-County-Women-Institutes.aspx" title="Exploring Women’s Institute Records at the Simcoe County Archives">For Home and Country: Exploring Women’s Institute Records at the Simcoe County Archives​</a></span><span data-contrast="auto" lang="EN-US"> on the Archives blog. </span><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"> ​</span></p><p><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"><br></span></p><p><span data-ccp-props="{"201341983":0,"335559739":160,"335559740":259}"><strong>Works Consulted​​</strong></span></p><ul><li> "What we do," <span style="font-size:1em;">Associated County Women of the World.</span><span style="font-size:1em;"> 2021. </span><a href="https://www.acww.org.uk/what_we_do.html" style="font-size:1em;">https://www.acww.org.uk/what_we_do.html </a></li><li> "The History of the ACWW," <span style="font-size:1em;">Associa</span><span style="font-size:1em;">ted County Women of the World.​ 2021. </span><span style="font-size:1em;"> </span><a href="https://www.acww.org.uk/our_history.html" style="font-size:1em;">https://www.acww.org.uk/our_history.html</a></li><li>Ambrose, L. M., Hall, Kristin. “A new woman in print and practice: The Canadian literary career of Madge Robertson Watt, 1890-1907." <em>History of Intellectual Culture, 2007, Vol 7, No 1</em>.  Archived 2015-01-12 at the Wayback Machine. <a href="https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/hic/article/view/68945/53387">https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/hic/article/view/68945/53387​</a><br></li><li>Ambrose, L.M. <em>A great rural sisterhood Madge Robertson Watt and the ACWW</em>. University of Toronto Press, 2015. <br></li><li>Fenner, Ruth. "A Canadian Woman of the 20th Century Who Has Made a Difference." <em>South Vancouver Island Women's Institutes blog</em>, 1999. <a href="http://www.svanciswomensinstitute.bc.ca/awatt.html" style="font-size:1em;">http://www.svanciswomensinstitute.bc.ca/awatt.html</a><span style="font-size:1em;">.</span></li><li>Fenner, Ruth. "Madge Watt and Metchosin." <em>British Columbia Women's Institute blog</em>,  September 19, 2017. <a href="https://www.bcwi.ca/blog/madge-watt-and-metchosin.">https://www.bcwi.ca/blog/madge-watt-and-metchosin.</a><br></li><li>Fenner, Ruth. "Madge Robertson - before she became Madge Watt." <em>British Columbia Women's Institute blog</em>, April 19, 2018. <a href="https://www.bcwi.ca/blog/madge-robertson-before-she-became-madge-watt">https://www.bcwi.ca/blog/madge-robertson-before-she-became-madge-watt</a>.<br></li><li>Simcoe County Area Women's Institute. <em>Simcoe Area WI Tweedsmuir Vol. 1, 1925-71</em>. Simcoe County Area Women's Institute fonds. Simcoe County Archives, Minesing, Ontario.<br></li><li>West Simcoe District Women's Institute. <em>West Simcoe District WI Tweedsmuir, Volume 2, 1958-78</em>. West Simcoe District Women's Institute fonds. Simcoe County Archives, Minesing, Ontario.</li></ul></div><div><br></div>
Christina Frances MacDougallhttps://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/IWD_Christina_Frances_MacDougall.aspx3/5/2018 1:48:30 PMChristina Frances MacDougall<div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/11_.000">a</a></div><p><span style="font-size:12px;">​​​​​​​​​​​​Blog originally posted March 5, 2018</span><span style="font-size:12px;">​</span><br style="font-size:12px;"><span style="font-size:12px;">Updated March 4, 2022</span><br><br></p><p>The Simcoe County Archives is sharing a series of letters from a woman who led a remarkable life during an eventful time in world history.</p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">In the 1920s, Christina Frances MacDougall of Barrie, Ontario, was a Presbyterian missionary at the <a href="https://asc.library.carleton.ca/exhibits/john-william-foster-fonds-lantern-slides/north-honan-mission" title="Carleton University Library Archives and Special Collections Exhibit on the The North Honan Mission" target="_blank">North Honan Mission</a> in Weihui, Henan, located in central China. She was teaching at the misson during a turbulent period in Chinese history known as <a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/warlord-Chinese-history" title="History of the Warloard Era">the Warlord Era</a>.  ​​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Christina-Frances-MacDougall_Temple-of-Heaven-1925_front.jpg" title="Christina Frances MacDougall​, 1924 in Beijing, China"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Christina-Frances-MacDougall_Temple-of-Heaven-1925_front_480.jpg" alt="Christina Frances MacDougall​, 1924 in Beijing, China" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"><strong>Christina Frances MacDougall​, 1924, in Beijing, China</strong><br></span><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"><strong>Photo: Courtesy of t</strong></span><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;"><strong>he Wakelin Family</strong></span></p><h2>The Warlord Era<br></h2><p><a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Puyi" title="Emperor Puyi">Emperor Puyi</a> of the <a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/Qing-dynasty" title="Qing Dynasty">Qing Dynasty </a>abdicated in 1912 after the military rebelled. <a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Yuan-Shikai" title="Yuan Shikai">Yuan Shikai</a>, President of China and General of the Army, was unable to put down the revolt and when public opinion followed that of the rebels, he brokered the abdication of the Emperor and assumed power himself. His rule proved autocratic and anti-parliamentary, and led to several revolts when local and regional military commanders reacted against his self-appointment as President-for-life and, eventually, first Emperor of a new dynasty. He died in 1916, after which military commanders and their forces entered into a period of conflict and shifting alliances, or cliques. Around this time, in the south of China, Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek formed the Nationalist Party, and with assistance from the Soviet Union, created the Republican Army. In 1928, the Republican Army reunified the country by bringing local warlords into its ranks. They remained in effective control of their respective areas until the 1949 creation of the Communist government.</p><h2>The Letter<br></h2><p>While still in Weihui, Henan, Christina Frances MacDougall wrote replies to letters she had received from students at Barrie Collegiate Institute. These letters shed light on the life of a County woman teaching in China. Some also provide a fascinating first-hand account of civil conflict in that region.<br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/NorthChina002_0.jpg" title="Map of the North Honan Mission "><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/NorthChina002_0.jpg" alt="Map of the North Honan Mission " style="margin:5px;" /></a>​</p><h4 style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteStyle-References">Map of the North Honan Mission from John William Foster's PhD thesis, pg. 377/378.</span><br class="ms-rteStyle-References"><span class="ms-rteStyle-References">Part of the </span><a href="https://asc.library.carleton.ca/exhibits/john-william-foster-fonds-lantern-slides" title="John William Foster Fonds at Carleton University Archives and Special Collections"><span class="ms-rteStyle-References">John William Foster Fonds</span></a><span class="ms-rteStyle-References"> held at  Archives & Special Collections, Carleton University Library.</span>​​</h4><br><p>Archives staff have determined tha​​t these letters were likely  written to the students of Christina's sister Florence, who was on staff at Barrie Collegiate Institute in the 1920s. Details in the letters suggest that they were written in December 1924 and January 1925. Names mentioned in the letters are<span style="font-size:1em;">: </span><span style="font-size:1em;">Helen, Doris, Jean, Vera Glenny, Ailsa, Bessie, Reta L., Vera Luck, Reta M., Ruth. While last names were not included, census data and examination results published in ​local newspapers suggest that these may be the full names of some of the letter recipients:</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><ul><li>Doris Canning <br></li><li>Jean Cowan <br></li><li>Vera Glenny <br></li><li>Ailsa Grey</li><li>Bessie Huxtable<br></li><li>Reta Livingston <br></li><li>Vera Luck <br></li><li>Reta Marriott <br></li><li>Ruth Marriott <br></li></ul><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/2007-147_BCI-Class-Photo-1925_2000.jpg" title="Students and staff gathered outside of Barrie Collegiate Institute in 1925​"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/2007-147_BCI-Class-Photo-1925_1080.jpg" alt="Students and staff gathered outside of Barrie Collegiate Institute in 1925​" style="margin:5px;" /></a><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;">​2007 -147      Barrie Collegiate Institute, 1925​<br></span><span class="ms-rteStyle-References" style="font-size:1em;font-weight:bold;">Photo: Simcoe County Archives</span></p><p>​One of the most intriguing aspects of the letters is the manner in which they were transported and stored. They were written on narrow sheets of rice paper, which were affixed together to form a scroll. The scroll contains 10 individual letters and when unrolled it measures just under 8 metres long.  In addition to her handwriting, the scroll also features decorative paintings of flowering plants. <br></p><p>The scroll was digitized by SCA staff in 2018, and can now be viewed in its entirety.  The letters have been separated into individual files for ease of access (Note that an unknown length of the scroll is missing from the beginning).  </p><p>When reviewing archival material please be aware of our <a href="/Archives/Pages/Historical-Language-Content-Advisory.aspx" title="Content and Historical Language Advisory" style="font-size:1em;">Content and Historical Language Advisory</a>.<br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2001%20Unkown%20Recipient%20or%20Introduction.jpg" title="age 1 - Unknown Recipient or Introduction to letters"><img alt="2007 -147 - Page 1 - Unkown Recipient or Introduction - Copyright: Public Domain" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2001%20Unkown%20Recipient%20or%20Introduction.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a> <br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 1 - Unknown Recipient or Introduction -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2002%20Dear%20Helen.jpg" title="Page 2 - Dear Helen "><img alt="Page 2 - Dear Helen - Copyright: Public Domain​" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2002%20Dear%20Helen.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 2 - Dear Helen -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2003%20Dear%20Doris.jpg"><img alt="Page 3 - Dear Doris " src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2003%20Dear%20Doris.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 3 - Dear Doris -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2004%20Dear%20Jean.jpg" title="Page 4 - Dear Jean "><img alt="Page 4 - Dear Jean " src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2004%20Dear%20Jean.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 4 - Dear Jean -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2005%20Dear%20Vera%20Glenny.jpg"><img alt=" Page 5 - Dear Vera Glenny " src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2005%20Dear%20Vera%20Glenny.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 5 - Dear Vera Glenny -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2006%20Dear%20Ailsa.jpg" title="Page 6 - Dear Ailsa "><img alt="Page 6 - Dear Ailsa " src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2006%20Dear%20Ailsa.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 6 - Dear Ailsa -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2007%20Dear%20Bessie.jpg" title="Page 7 - Dear Bessie "><img alt="Page 7 - Dear Bessie " src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2007%20Dear%20Bessie.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 7 - Dear Bessie -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2008%20Dear%20Reta%20L..jpg" title="Page 8 - Dear Reta L"><img alt="Page 8 - Dear Reta L" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2008%20Dear%20Reta%20L..jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 8 - Dear Reta L. -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2009%20Dear%20Vera%20Luck.jpg" title="Page 9 - Dear Vera Luck "><img alt=" Page 9 - Dear Vera Luck" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2009%20Dear%20Vera%20Luck.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 9  - Dear Vera Luck -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2010%20Dear%20Reta%20M..jpg" title="Page 10 - Dear Reta M"><img alt="Page 10 - Dear Reta M" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2010%20Dear%20Reta%20M..jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 10  - Dear Reta M. -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/1080_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2011%20Dear%20Ruth%20and%20Ending.jpg" title="Page 11 - Dear Ruth and Ending"><img alt="Page 11 - Dear Ruth and Ending" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2018-03-08/Thumbnail_JPG/2007-147%20Letter%20from%20China%2011%20Dear%20Ruth%20and%20Ending.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><em style="font-size:1em;">2007 -147 - Page 11  - Dear Ruth and Ending. -</em><em style="font-size:1em;"> Copyright: Public Domain</em><span style="font-size:1em;">​</span><br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">The letter was donated to the Simcoe County Archives in 1996 by the daughter of one of the recipients, and fell into the public domain in 2010.</span><br></p><p><span style="font-size:1em;"><br></span></p><h2>Christina Frances MacDougall</h2><p>Who was the woman behind this incredible record? The truth is that we do not know very much about Christina Frances MacDougall. The letters she wrote are undated, and do not speak directly to her life in Canada. Research has revealed a few facts which give us an indication of who she was, and what her life in the County might have been like.</p><p><span style="font-size:1em;">Based on research in the Barrie Examiner (28 Sep. 1922, 30 Nov. 1939, and 16, 17, & 24 Mar. 1959), Archives' staff believe that Miss MacDougall was born in China, a daughter of the Rev. Dr. John MacDougall and Frances Childerhose, who went as missionaries to China in 1899, shortly before</span><a href="https://www.britannica.com/event/Boxer-Rebellion" style="font-size:1em;"> the Boxer Rebellion​</a>.<br></p><p>She had five siblings: Florence E. MacDougall, Helen (MacDougall) Stairs​, Kenneth MacDougall, J. Lorne MacDougall, and Baldwin C. MacDougall. </p><p>On 21 Sep. 1921, Christina gave “a most instructive and inspiring address" to the St. Andrew's Church Women's Missionary Society. </p><p>On 21 Jul. 1925, a letter from Christina MacDougall was read by her sister during a meeting of the ladies of the Presbyterian Unionist Group. (<em>The Northern Advance</em>, Barrie, 23 Jul. 1925, p8.)</p><p>Christina went on to various mission posts in Sudbury, Copper Cliff, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Glace Bay, and Winnipeg. In 1939, the year of her father's death, she was at St. Colomba's Mission in Montreal. <br></p><p>She retired from active work in 1954 and lived with her sister in Barrie until her death in 1959. She is buried at Barrie Union Cemetery.<br></p><p>​<br><br></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Works Consulted</strong></p><p>Barrie Public Library, "Search" <em>Barrie Historical Newspaper Archive</em> online. Accessed March 4, 2022. <a href="https://news.ourontario.ca/Barrie/search">https://news.ourontario.ca/Barrie/search</a><br><br><span style="font-size:1em;">The Ed</span><span style="font-size:1em;">itors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Puyi," </span><em style="font-size:1em;">Encyclopaedia Britannica</em><span style="font-size:1em;"> online. Last modified December 10, 2014. </span><a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Puyi" style="font-size:1em;">https://www.britannica.com/biography/Puyi</a><span style="font-size:1em;">.</span></p><p>The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Qing Dynasty," <em>Encyclopaedia Britannica</em> online. Last modified January 19, 2018. <a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/Qing-dynasty">https://www.britannica.com/topic/Qing-dynasty</a>. </p><p>The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Warlord," <em>Encyclopaedia Britannica</em> online. Last modified December 10, 2014. <a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/warlord-Chinese-history">https://www.britannica.com/topic/warlord-Chinese-history</a>. </p><p>The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Yuan Shikai," <em>Encyclopaedia Britannica</em> online. Last modified November 8, 2015. <a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Yuan-Shikai">https://www.britannica.com/biography/Yuan-Shikai</a>.</p><p>Staff at Archives & Special Collections, Carleton University Library "The North Honan Mission," <em>John William Foster Fonds Lantern Slides Exhibit</em> online. Accessed March 4, 2022.  <a href="https://asc.library.carleton.ca/exhibits/john-william-foster-fonds-lantern-slides/north-honan-mission">https://asc.library.carleton.ca/exhibits/john-william-foster-fonds-lantern-slides/north-honan-mission</a><br></p><p><a href="https://news.ourontario.ca/Barrie/search"></a><br><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p>​​​​<br><br></p><p>​​​​​​​​​​​​​​<span id="__publishingReusableFragment"></span>​<br><br><br></p>