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Archives Blog

Welcome to the Simcoe County Archives blog.

We'll be posting records from our collections that celebrate anniversaries and events as well as items that catch our interest. We hope they catch yours, too!

Blog posts appear in the list below. Happy reading!

 

 

Remembering Vimyhttp://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Remembering-Vimy.aspx3/30/2017 3:23:02 PMRemembering Vimy<p style="text-align:left;"><strong class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-2">​<span class="ms-rteFontSize-5 ms-rteThemeFontFace-2">April 9-12, 1917</span></strong></p><p><strong>Introduction</strong></p><p>The story of the <a title="The Battle of Vimy Ridge Exhibit" href="http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/vimy/index_e.shtml">Battle of Vimy Ridge </a>has become entwined in the history of Canada.  It marked the first time during the Great War that the four Canadian divisions were brought together to fight for a common objective: to launch an assault on a strategic piece of land the Germans had held since 1914.  The resulting victory, and its human losses, have been commemorated by Canadians ever since.  Those who fought and lived had memories to recall, and the dead were remembered by those they had known and loved at home, while enduring memorials were constructed as reminders to subsequent generations.  Evidence of those memories, in memoriams, and memorials are preserved at the Simcoe County Archives. </p><p style="text-align:center;"><strong class="ms-rteFontSize-4">THE MEMORIES</strong></p><p><strong>"Battle of Arras began this am"</strong></p><p>During the First World War, Gerard Breckenridge Strathy (1880-1963) was an officer in the Canad<a title="Enlarge diary pages" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/981-21_1024_1917%20Diary_GB%20Strathy_p54-55.JPG"><img class="ms-rteImage-3 ms-rtePosition-1" alt="G.B. Strathy Diary, April 1917" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/981-21_480_1917%20Diary_GB%20Strathy_p54-55.JPG" style="margin:5px;width:380px;height:293px;" /></a>ian Army Medical Corps.  In April 1917 he was serving with the <a title="In Good Hands Exhibit" href="http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/Robertson/Canadian_Casualty_Clearing_Station.aspx">No. 2 Canadian Casualty Clearing Station</a> based at Remy Siding.  </p><p>In his personal diary entry for Monday, April 9, 1917, Strathy wrote: "News in to-day that Canadians have captured Vimy Ridge… a great stunt if true."</p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">981-21  Morton Family Collection - G.B. Strathy Diary, 1917.     Copyright:  </span><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Public domain.</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><strong>"Vive. Vive Canadien"</strong></p><p>Christopher George Cook (1892-1979) was born in Cookstown, Simcoe County, and <a title="Full essay and poem" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/CG%20COOK_Vimy%20Ridge%20Collection.pdf"><img class="ms-rteImage-3 ms-rtePosition-1" alt="C.G. Cook poem "The Night Before Vimy"" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/986-39_480_The%20Night%20Before%20Vimy_CG%20Cook_Pg%201.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:340px;height:425px;" /></a>enlisted in the 169<sup>th</sup> Overseas Battalion on January 24, 1916.  He joined the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry "in the field" on March 6, 1917.  </p><p>Cook had worked at the Cookstown Advocate for a time before the war and apparently never got the ink out of his system.  His <a title="Article re. C.G. Cook" href="http://www.inthehills.ca/2017/03/current/remembrance-vimy-ridge/">essay and poem</a> in memory of Vimy were likely written during the 1960s or 1970s.</p><p> </p><p><strong></strong>  </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">986-39  Essay and Poem by Christopher George Cook.     Copyright:  C.G. Cook Estate, used with permission.</span></p><p> </p><p><strong></strong> <strong>"Albert to Ypres – 60 miles"</strong></p><p><a title="Norman D. Clarke - Canadian Great War Project" href="http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/searches/soldierDetail.asp?ID=71060">Norman D. Clarke</a> (1893-1977), enlisted in the 5<sup>th</sup> University Company on November 30, <a title="Enlarge atlas pages" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/979-38_1024_War%20Atlas%20and%20Gazetteer.JPG"><img class="ms-rtePosition-1 ms-rteImage-3" alt="The Times War Atlas and Gazetteer - The Western Theatre - Calais to the Meuse" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/979-38_480_War%20Atlas%20and%20Gazetteer.JPG" style="margin:5px;width:340px;height:254px;" /></a>1915.   He joined the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry "in the field" on June 9, 1916.  ​Among the many volumes in Clarke's private library was a copy of <em>The Times War Atlas and Gazetteer</em>, which was published the same year.  The Atlas included maps of the war areas as well as statistics relating to the "belligerent countries."</p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">979-38   Norman D. Clarke collection - <em>The Times Atlas and Gazetteer, 1916</em>.     Copyright:  Public domain.</span></p><p> </p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-4"><strong>IN MEMORIAM</strong></span></p><p><strong>"Died in the service of his King and Country"</strong><a title="Enlarge page" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/969-42_1024_Francis%20Goodwin%20Rankin_Memorial%20service%20pamplet_cover.jpg"><img class="ms-rtePosition-2 ms-rteImage-3" alt="Order of Service - in memory of Francis Goodwin Rankin, May 1917" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/969-42_480_Francis%20Goodwin%20Rankin_Memorial%20service%20pamplet_cover.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:448px;" /></a></p><p>Francis Goodwin Rankin (1896-1917), was the son of Henry Thomas and Frances Melinda (Goodwin) Rankin.  On <a title="F. G. Rankin Attestation Paper" href="http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/first-world-war/personnel-records/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=587722">September 3, 1915 </a>he enlisted with the 76<sup>th</sup> Battalion in Niagara Camp, and later served with the 4<sup>th</sup> (Central Ontario) Battalion.  Rankin died on April 10, 1917, just a few months past his 21<sup>st</sup> birthday.  </p><p>​​<span aria-hidden="true"></span>A service in Rankin's memory was held at St. John's Anglican Church, Cookstown, at 8 o'clock in the evening of May 4, 1917.  The Order of Service also included the words to the four hymns which were sung.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> </p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">969-42 R. Graham Estate collection - Order of Service in Memory of Francis Goodwin Rankin.     Copyright:  Public domain</span></p><p dir="rtl" style="text-align:right;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span> 969-42</p><p><strong></strong> <strong>"In morning Jack got a message by wire..."</strong></p><p><img class="ms-rteImage-3 ms-rtePosition-2" alt="Transcription of diary entry" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/Wiggins_Transcription4.png" style="margin:5px;width:265px;" />Laura (McMurray) Wiggins was born in Sunnidale Township in 1880, the daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Clubine) McMurray.  In 1913 she married John W. (Jack) Wiggins and moved to Severn Bridge, Muskoka District.  </p><p>Her diary entry of April 12, 1917 noted that her husband had received news by wire that <a title="S. Mearing Service File" href="http://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?op=pdf&app=CEF&id=B6088-S029">Sid Mearing</a>, a former resident of Orillia, had died of wounds on April 6<sup>th</sup>.</p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">     972-33 Laura Wiggins collection - Laura Wiggins Diary, 1916-1921.     Copyright:  L. Wiggins Estate</span></p></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote><p><strong></strong> </p><p> <strong>"… killed in action at Vimy Ridge"</strong></p><p><a title="Enlarge scrapbook page" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/967-129_1024_BOYES%20WWI%20Soldiers%20Scrapbook%202_p30%20copy.JPG"><img class="ms-rtePosition-2 ms-rteImage-3" alt="A. Boyes WWI Scrapbook" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/967-129_BOYES%20WWI%20Soldiers%20Scrapbook%202_p30_480.JPG" style="margin:5px;width:340px;height:516px;" /></a>During the First World War, local and national newspapers and magazines routinely published photographs of, and obituaries for, those who had died.  Individuals then clipped the items and pasted them into scrapbooks.  </p><p>One donated to the Simcoe County Archives by Annie Boyes includes a newspaper clipping re. <a title="T.R. Speers Obituary in Barrie Northern Advance" href="http://news.ourontario.ca/barrie/2770234/page/8">Thomas Robert Speers</a> (1882-1917), second son of Mrs. and Mrs. James Speers of Barrie.  Speers fought at Vimy and died between April 8<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup>.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p>      <span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">967-129 Annie Boyes collection - WWI Scrapbook.     Copyright:  Public domain.</span></p></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote><p> </p><p style="text-align:center;"><strong class="ms-rteFontSize-4">THE MEMORIALS</strong></p><p><strong>"No known grave"</strong></p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p><a title="Enlarge image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/969-31_1024_Vimy%20Memorial_R0A%20S11%20S0.jpg"><img class="ms-rtePosition-4 ms-rteImage-3" alt="Vimy Memorial postcard" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/969-31_480_Vimy%20Memorial_R0A%20S11%20S0.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:480px;height:326px;" /></a></p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">      969-31 Haughton photograph album - postcard of Vimy Memorial.     Copyright:  Public domain.</span></p></blockquote></blockquote><p>While there are other memorial sites located in the vicinity of Vimy Ridge, the <a title="Canadian National Vimy Memorial" href="http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/overseas/first-world-war/france/vimy">monument</a> designed by architect Walter Seymour Allward commands the most attention.  It both commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge and stands as a tribute to all Canadians who gave or risked their lives during the First World War.  Unveiled by King Edward VIII on July 26, 1936, the figure of "Canada Bereft" looks down on the ramparts and the inscribed names of 11,285 Canadians who were killed in France and who have no known grave.  Included are William Robert McKay and William Chester Pettit, both of Tottenham, who fought and died at Vimy.</p><p> </p><p><strong>"Wreaths can be placed on graves at any time…"</strong></p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p>   <a title="Full booklet" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/9620-1320_1024_Combined_Wreaths%20for%20War%20Graves.JPG"><img class="ms-rtePosition-4 ms-rteImage-3" alt="Wreaths for War Graves booklet" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/9620-1320_480_Wreaths%20for%20War%20Graves%20bklt_cover.JPG" style="margin:5px;width:360px;height:500px;" /></a></p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">9620-1320  Wreaths for War Graves booklet.     Copyright:  Public domain.</span></p></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote><p>The graves of the more than 7,000 buried in <a title="Commonwealth War Graves Commission" href="http://www.cwgc.org/">cemeteries</a> within a 20-kilometre radius of the National Memorial at Vimy Ridge could not be personally visited by the majority of their family members and friends.  The St. Barnabas Hostels was established in 1919, "to help relatives of the fallen in every possible way."  This included making arrangements for wreaths, blessed by the chaplain, to be placed on graves at any time, but especially for Armistice Day, Christmas Day and Easter.</p><p> </p><p><strong>"To the memory of those who gave their lives…"   </strong></p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p><a title="Enlarge image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/976-26_1024_Memorial%20and%20Arena%20Gardens%20Postcard.jpg"><img class="ms-rtePosition-4 ms-rteImage-3" alt="Memorial and Arena Gardens, Midland, Ontario, postcard" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/976-26_480_Memorial%20and%20Arena%20Gardens%20Postcard.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:480px;height:313px;" /></a></p><p><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">976-26 Memorial and Arena Gardens, Midland, Ontario, Canada postcard.     Copyright:  Public domain.</span> </p></blockquote></blockquote><p>Dedicated to the memory of those who gave their lives in the Great War, 1914-1918, <a title="Tour the War Memorials of Simcoe County" href="http://maps.simcoe.ca/StoryMaps/WarMemorial/#">Midland's Memorial</a> was unveiled on June 1, 1927.  Four of the 68 names engraved on the monument are of men who fell during the battle at Vimy:  Oscar French, David Green, John Lowes, and Albert Walker Sterrett.</p><p> </p><p style="text-align:center;"><strong class="ms-rteFontSize-5">Remembering Vimy, April 9-12, 1917</strong><a title="Enlarge poppy" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/985-66_1024_Poppy.JPG"><img class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="Cloth poppy" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Vimy_Exhibit/985-66%20Poppy_edit_1024.PNG" style="margin:5px;width:151px;" /></a></p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p dir="ltr"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">From:  </span><em class="ms-rteFontSize-2">For the Fallen</em><span class="ms-rteFontSize-2">, by Robert Laurence Binyon (1869-1943)</span></span></p><p dir="ltr">They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:</p><p dir="ltr">Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.</p><p dir="ltr">At the going down of the sun and in the morning</p><p dir="ltr">We will remember them.</p><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><blockquote dir="ltr" style="margin-right:0px;"><p dir="ltr"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">985-66 Morton collection - <a title="The History of the Poppy" href="http://www.legion.ca/honour-remember/the-poppy-campaign/the-history/">Cloth poppy</a>     Copyright:  Simcoe County Archives</span></p></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote></blockquote><p> </p>
Happy Birthday Sir John A Macdonaldhttp://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/Happy-Birthday-Sir-John-A-Macdonald.aspx2/3/2017 3:48:08 PMHappy Birthday Sir John A Macdonald<p style="text-align:center;"><strong><span aria-hidden="true"></span>Happy Birthday, Sir John A. Macdonald!</strong></p><p style="text-align:left;"><a href="http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/macdonald_john_alexander_12E.html"><font color="#0066cc">Sir John A. Macdonald </font></a>(1815-1891) was born on January 11th.  To celebrate, we're sharing a draft of a letter <a href="http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/gowan_james_robert_13E.html"><font color="#0066cc">Sir James R. Gowan</font></a>, first judge of Simcoe District, wrote to his long-time friend and correspondent on the occasion of Macdonald's 76<sup>th</sup> (and last) birthday.</p><p>A resident of Barrie, Gowan was a lawyer, judge, senator, and author of an unknown number of pieces of draft legislation that Macdonald presented in both the provincial and federal legislatures.  </p><p style="text-align:left;">While undated, the incomplete draft letter below was written in early January 1891.</p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/999-21_Gowan_Macdonald_undated_front_1080.jpg"><img alt="1891 draft letter from Gowan to Macdonald" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/999-21_Gowan_Macdonald_undated_front_480.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:131px;" /></a><strong>  </strong><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/999-21_Gowan_Macdonald_undated_back_1080.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/999-21_Gowan_Macdonald_undated_back_480.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:129px;" /></a><strong> </strong></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/dpt/arc/Transcription_of_Birthday_Greetings_Letter.pdf"><sup><font color="#0066cc">Transcription</font></sup></a></p><p>​</p>
Royal Visits to Simcoe Countyhttp://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County.aspx2/3/2017 7:44:26 PMRoyal Visits to Simcoe County<p>February 6, 2017 marks the 65<sup>th</sup> Anniversary of the death of King George VI and the ascension to the throne of Queen Elizabeth II.  Beginning in 1860, many members of the British Royal Family have travelled through Simcoe County.</p><p>On September 10, 1860, Albert Edward, <a title="Previous Princes of Wales" href="http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/the-prince-of-wales/titles-and-heraldry/previous-princes-of-wales">Prince of Wales' </a>Train stopped at the Barrie Station.  In Simcoe County Council's Address to His Royal Highness, read by <a title="History of County Wardens" href="/_layouts/15/FIXUPREDIRECT.ASPX?WebId=a41fbfa1-82ca-4939-9932-d97b8d6ad3e9&TermSetId=fb933945-005d-43ad-bb62-b84ef1fa9284&TermId=5df6ba7f-2cfa-44fd-aab4-1bf8c0227f89">Warden</a> T.D. McConkey, they prayed him "to accept a hearty welcome to the Loyal County of Simcoe, as the worthy scion of [his] royal Mother, long may she be preserved, a pattern to other rulers, and a blessing to the land!"  See:  Barrie Northern Advance, 12 September 1860 p.2   <a title="Barrie Public Library Newspaper Index" href="http://news.ourontario.ca/barrie/search">Barrie Public Library Newspaper Index</a></p><p>Forty-one years later, on October 10, 1901, the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York – later King George V and Queen Mary – travelled through the County.  They stopped briefly at the Barrie Station, where a large crowd had assembled, before travelling on to Allandale.</p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-1901--961-732%20Duke%20of%20York%20visit%20to%20Barrie%20Station%201%201901%20E5%20B1%20R4A%20S1%20Sh3.jpg"><img alt="Duke and Duchess of Cornwall visit, 1901" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1901--961-732%20Duke%20of%20York%20visit%20to%20Barrie%20Station%201%201901%20E5%20B1%20R4A%20S1%20Sh3.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:480px;height:364px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Crowds gathered to see the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, October 10, 1901</span></p><p>Edward, <a href="http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/the-prince-of-wales/titles-and-heraldry/previous-princes-of-wales">Prince of Wales</a>, passed through several points on the GTR line through Simcoe County.  The Royal Train was scheduled to stop at Allandale at 10:50 a.m. on October 17, 1919. </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-1919--2007-104-GTR_Employee%20Schedule_front-edited.jpg"><img alt="GTR employee's schedule for HRH the Prince of Wales' train 1919" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1919--2007-104-GTR_Employee%20Schedule_front-edited.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">GTR Employees Schedule for running of HRH The Prince of Wale's special train, October 17,1919</span></p><p>On May 17, 1939 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth embarked on a cross-country tour of Canada.  It was the first time a reigning monarch had set foot on Canadian soil and large crowds greeted them wherever they went.  </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-1939--966-3-Canadian%20National_front.jpg"><img alt="CN bargain fares and special train service flyer for service to the royal visit, 1939" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1939--966-3-Canadian%20National_front.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Bargain fares and special train service to Toronto on account of the visit of the King and Queen, 1939</span></p><p>Midland and Penetanguishene welcomed Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip to their communities on July 8, 1959.  </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-1959--978-23-Queen%20Elizabeth%20Prince%20Philip.jpg"><img alt="Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, 1959" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1959--978-23-Queen%20Elizabeth%20Prince%20Philip.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, July 8, 1959</span></p><p>In recent years, there have been two royal visits to Simcoe County.  Prince Edward and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, toured <a title="Ste-Marie Among the Hurons" href="http://www.saintemarieamongthehurons.on.ca/sm/en/Home/">Ste-Marie among the Hurons</a> and <a title="St. James on the Lines Heritage Plaque" href="http://www.ontarioplaques.com/Plaques/Plaque_Simcoe11.html">St. James on-the-Lines Church</a> in September 2012.  </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-2012-SM--250-%20Ste%20Marie%2021%20Oct%201966%20img18.jpg"><img alt="Ste. Marie among the Hurons" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/2012-SM--250-%20Ste%20Marie%2021%20Oct%201966%20img18.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Ste. Marie among the Hurons, 1966</span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-2012-SJ--999-39%20St%20James%20Church%20Penetanguishene%20E7%20B2%20R6B%20S6%20Sh2.jpg"><img alt="St. James on the Lines Church" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/2012-SJ--999-39%20St%20James%20Church%20Penetanguishene%20E7%20B2%20R6B%20S6%20Sh2.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">St. James on the Lines, ca. 1990s</span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1"></span>Princess Anne, the Princess Royal, stopped in Barrie and CFB Borden on October 22, 2013.  During her visit she visited the <a title="Grey and Simcoe Foresters website" href="http://www.thegreyandsimcoeforesters.org/">Grey & Simcoe Foresters Regiment</a>, of which she is Colonel-in-Chief, and dedicated the Military Heritage Park on Kempenfelt Bay. </p><p style="text-align:center;"><a title="Larger image" href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/1080-Princess_Anne_Inspection-1--CB2013-0372-061.jpg"><img alt="Princess Anne inspects the Grey and Simcoe Foresters, 2013" src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/Royal-Visits-to-Simcoe-County/Princess_Anne_Inspection-1--CB2013-0372-061.jpg" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br><span class="ms-rteFontSize-1">Princess Anne inspects the <a title="Grey and Simcoe Foresters DND website" href="http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/grey-simcoe-foresters/index.page">Grey and Simcoe Foresters Regiment</a>, 2013<br>Image taken by Sgt. Paul MacGregor, Copyright 2013 DND/MND<br>Used by permission of Grey and Simcoe Foresters</span></p>
Kate Aitkenhttp://www.simcoe.ca/Archives/Pages/Blog/Kate-Aitken.aspx3/6/2017 5:49:45 PMKate Aitken<p><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="font-family:arial;">Kate (Scott) Aitken also known as “Mrs. A” was a celebrated Canadian broadcaster, lecturer and author. Her career was so diverse, that it is a challenge to list all of her accomplishments. </span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeFontFace-1 ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="font-family:arial;">                                     <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/1081_AITKEN,%20Kate_Program%20plaque%20unveiling.jpg"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/480_AITKEN,%20Kate_Program%20plaque%20unveiling.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:400px;width:278px;" /></a><br></span></span></p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial;font-size:12pt;"></span><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;">Kate May Scott was born on April 6, 1891, to Anne and Robert Scott, in the small rural village of Beeton Ontario.</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;">                  <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2016-17_1081_Centre%20Street,%20Beeton,%20Ontario,%20Canada.JPG"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/2016-17_480_Centre%20Street,%20Beeton,%20Ontario,%20Canada.JPG" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a></span></p><p><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:arial;">At the early age of twelve, Kate became a self-styled entrepreneur. During the summer holidays, she rented a bicycle and sold cosmetics by order form, to the ladies of Beeton and outlying farms. That same year she entered High School and used her earnings, $27.85, to pay for her books.</span></p><p>              <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/1081_The%20Beeton%20World_Apr%2010_1902.JPG"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/480_The%20Beeton%20World_Apr%2010_1902.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;">Kate’s writing career also had an early start. Robert Scott owned and operated one of three general stores in Beeton. His least favorite task was composing the store’s weekly ad for the local newspaper. Kate received high marks for composition in school, which landed her the “job”.</span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;">                                <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/974-05_480_AITKEN,%20K_Making%20your%20living_cover_front.JPG"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/974-05_480_AITKEN,%20K_Making%20your%20living_cover_front.JPG" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a>                                 <a href="/Archives/Pages/974-05_1081_AITKEN,%20K_Making%20your%20living_cover_front.JPG"></a></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial;font-size:12pt;">Later in life she went on to be the author six books.“Kate Aitken’s Canadian Cook Book” published in 1945 became a best seller. In “Never A Day So Bright” published 1956 and in “Making Your Living is Fun” published 1959, Kate writes about life growing up in Beeton and her subsequent careers. Both are a delightful read. They are available at the Archives reading room. She also wrote for newspapers and magazines.</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="font-family:arial;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-size:12pt;"></span><span style="font-family:arial;">Kate's teaching career started as a substitute teacher when she was 14. She became certified at 16 with only three months training. Receiving higher certification at 18 she then moved to Saskatchewan. "I learned that every Western teacher should come equipped not only with text-books but also with a saddle" (Aitken, 13).</span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Her stay out west was short lived. She received news that her father was very ill. This prompted her to return home. Robert Scott passed away in September of that year. (1910)</span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After her father’s death Kate continued to teach and help her mother run the store. </span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">I</span></span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">n 1912 Kate’s mother sold the store and family home. They relocated in Toronto. This was where she married Henry Mundell Aitken on October 7, 1914. They moved to Minnesota where Henry had an established real estate business. Kate continued to teach. </span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After the death of Henry’s brother, the couple moved back to Beeton so that Henry could run his family’s flour mill. They also bought a small farm. <span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate ran a very successful poultry business. Two of her hens held world egg-laying records. Having branched out to include garden, orchard and dairy produce, she became an expert in canning and preserving. The family had expanded to include two lovely daughters. Anne and Mary. </span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">In 1920 she was instrumental in forming the Beeton chapter of the Women’s Institute. Kate was the branch’s first president. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">As a result of her farming expertise and voracious appetite for reading, Kate was quite knowledgeable. She was hired as a lecturer by the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. The lecture courses were directed at rural areas across Canada. She also became a part time newspaper correspondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size:12pt;">Kate’s first official overseas trip was to London England, where she was in charge of the Canadian exhibit for the Empire Craft Exhibition. Kate was asked to present a handmade bedspread from Quebec, to the Duchess of York. Through the Women’s Institute of Canada, she was invited to have tea with the future King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and their baby daughter Queen Elizabeth II. </span><span style="font-size:12pt;line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;">During hard times in the depression, Kate’s family was no exception. To compound matters the farm was vandalized by fire and robbery. It was a devastating experience and financial setback. Lady luck stepped in and Kate was asked by an advertising company to host a series of short cooking schools in Montreal. The main theme was management and economy in the kitchen. The courses were expanded to include other parts of Canada. This gave rise to several new opportunities. An American railway executive approached Kate about starting canning centers State side, to help struggling farmers. “Out of that casual conversation, I got me another job.” (Aitken, 121).<sup> </sup>What started out as three canning centers producing jams, jellies and pickles for sale to the railway for use in dining cars, blossomed into canning co-operative plants. Another invitation was extended to host the cooking school at the Chicago Women’s World’s Fair. It was billed as “The Farm Kitchen”, but according to Kate it was quite posh.  “After a few days, I too became accustomed to this Alice in Wonderland atmosphere and earnestly talked economy from a $5000  farm kitchen" (Aitken, 123).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size:12pt;line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;">The Cooking schools were also held at the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto. Kate went on to become Director of Women’s Activities. “My weakness has always been that the success of the job meant far more to me than the financial returns. Money isn’t everything. To be part of a project that started with a twelve-foot booth and worked up to a five building enterprise, is to be caught up in the magic of growth, than which there is nothing more exhilarating" (Aitken, 139).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate’s start to a very long broadcasting career, came while doing a cooking show live from Prince Edward Island. It was a hit. Kate hosted and wrote the shows. “I was allowed to follow my own format of news, household hints, fashions, and human-interest stories" (Aitken, 142). Her programmes were heard three times a day throughout the year. She was heard locally, nationally and internationally. Kate’s broadcasting career led her to travel the world covering important events as well as meetings and interviews with famous personalities at home and abroad. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">When television became popular, she also found herself doing food commercials for a weekly variety show.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"></span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">In 1945 she was “retained by the British Ministry of Food to do a survey of food conditions in newly liberated or conquered countries" (Aitken, 177).<sup> </sup>This gave her firsthand experience of the aftermath of war.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">On a lighter side, another venture was “The Spa” just outside of Toronto.  Kate started a weekend getaway for women, in a country setting. The experience came complete with theme decorated private rooms, dining and lounge area, beauty rooms, health care, masseuses, walks in the woods and a full staff. The retreat offered relaxation and plenty of pampering. She had acquired a great deal of know-how from writing beauty columns and covering fashion shows for newspapers and magazines.  Not to forget her co-ordination of the “thirty seven fashion shows” daily at the National Exhibition (Aitken, 132).  Her expertise was invaluable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">Kate was appointed to the Canadian Radio and Television Board of Broadcast Governors in 1958.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">After a long and fruitful life, Kate Aitken passed away on December 11, 1971. Her final resting place is the Beeton United Church  Cemetery.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p>                 <a href="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/AITKEN,%20Kate_1081_plaque%20ceremony_edit.JPG"><img src="/Archives/PublishingImages/Pages/Blog/AITKEN,%20Kate_480_plaque%20ceremony_edit.JPG" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></a><br></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">A memorial plaque was placed in her honour on June 3, 1973 in Beeton Community Park.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;"><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:arial, sans-serif;font-size:12pt;">As we celebrate International Women’s Day, “Mrs. A.” was, and still is, a true inspiration for women in all walks of life. Her place in the long line of influential women is well deserved.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p style="text-align:center;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0">Citations</span></p><p style="text-align:left;"><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0">Aitken, K.S. (1959). <em>Making your living is fun. </em>Toronto, NY: Longmans, Green. <em></em></span></p>